Porto is Portugal's second largest city and the capital of the Northern region.
Porto is a busy industrial and commercial center. The city itself isn't very populous (about 240,000 inhabitants), but the Porto metropolitan area (Big Porto) ranks some 1,500,000 inhabitants in a 50 km radius, with cities like Gaia, Matosinhos, Maia, Gondomar and Espinho.
The city was built along the hills overlooking the Douro river estuary, and its historical center was awarded World Heritage status by UNESCO in 1996. It has been continuously inhabited since at least the 4th Century, when the Romans referred to it as Portus Calle
Porto has a semi-Mediterranean climate, although it's strongly affected by the Atlantic ocean, which makes it cooler than other Mediterranean cities. However, temperatures can rise as high as 40ºC in August during occasional heat waves. Winters are mild and humid, with occasional cold nights where temperatures can drop below 0ºC.
Porto has always been a mercantile city, and this is evident in the style of buildings that front onto the Avenida dos Aliados, the core of the downtown area. The center of town, unlike other major Portuguese cities, which tend towards the baroque, is granite and monumental. Residents of Porto are known as Tripeiros (tripe eaters) allegedly due to the fact that the city went without meat in order to provision the the fleet that left to conquer Ceuta in North Africa in 1415 (which left from Porto) and had to subsist on tripe soup, still a specialty of the city.
Citizens of Porto, while definitely Portuguese, hold themselves apart culturally from the rest of the country, as is expressed in the often heard phrase "o Porto é uma nação" (Porto is a nation). Outsiders often consider Porto to be more crass and mercantile than the rest of the country, and less lacking in social graces. This is likely due to the fact that the city has historically been dominated by Portuguese bourgeoisie and English trading factions rather than the nobility. Tripeiros of course, disagree, regarding themselves (with some justification) as being the economic heart of the nation. As the saying goes, "Porto works, Braga Prays, Coimbra studies, and Lisbon gets the money."
The city is officially styled "a muito nobre, sempre leal e invicta cidade do Porto" (the very noble, always faithful, and invincible city of Porto). This is usually shortened to "a Cidade Invicta" (the invincible city) a title won because of Porto's unparalleled resistance against Napoleonic troops during the Peninsular war.
The city is quite variegated architecturally, with medieval as well as modern living side by side. Porto's geography is hard on the feet, but pleasant to the eye. The city is extremely hilly, with many buildings built into a cliff face that overlooks the river. Stairs cut into the stone run up and down the cliff face and offer a laborious but rewarding walking tour. Across the river from Porto proper, in the suburb of Gaia, are located the warehouses of notable companies dealing with Port Wine, such as Cálem, Fonseca, Sandemans, Kopke, and others.
Whilst the local attitude is friendly, to outsiders it is worth noting that locals can respond literally to questions, which may seem slightly off-putting to the uninitiated. An example of this would be to ask in a bar if they have a menu (for food) and to receive a straight 'no' as a response; it's after further questions that one can find out that the establishment doesn't sell food - such a response is not considered rude, it is merely direct and literal.
If you speak in Spanish to a local, you will be largely understood and as a rule they will freely converse with you, but from time to time, more so with the older generation, you may be politely reminded that you are in Portugal and the native language is Portuguese.
Sá Carneiro Airport, (IATA : OPO), Pedras Rubras,Maia (+351) 229 432 400, . Also known as Aeroporto do Porto or Aeroporto de Pedras Rubras this is the third busiest airport in the country and is about 15 km from the city centre. Just outside of the airport is the AeroBus which for €4 - 2005 - takes you to Praça da Liberdade (city center) or will drop you off at the Pousada da Juventude. A similar taxi trip will cost €20. the Metro line connects the Airport to the city centre, offering a fast and peaceful ride into the heart of the city, for €1,45.
TAP flies from most European airports but tends to be more expensive.
The city is served by two major train stations, the "São Bento" (Saint Benedict) station, and the "Campanhã" station. Trains from and to Madrid and Paris are regular, other non-domestic destinations vary according to demand and time of year. Domestic trains are very frequent and usually on time. Be careful on the train from Madrid. On at least one route, the computer systems will say you need to change trains at Guillarei in northern Spain. However, Guillarei has stopped trains through Portugal since 2004. Instead, you will need to transfer to a station named Tui which is a few miles from Guillarei. The computer system hasn't been updated even though this change occurred in 2004 for some reason. You can go into Guillarei but you will need to take a taxi (cost me €5) to Tui to connect.Sao Bento station is right in the city center.
The city is served by five major highways: A1, which connects Porto to Lisbon, A29 which connects Porto to Aveiro, A3 connects Porto to Braga, A28 connects Porto to Viana do Castelo and the northern Portuguese border, and A4, which goes eastwards from the city towards Vila Real. The IC29 connects Porto to the neighboring city of Gondomar. The city is also served by 2 ring highways, the A41 (still incomplete) which is the outer ring, and VCI/IC23 or A20 which connects all the main places inside the city. The A20/VCI, A28, A29 and A41 are all free highways at the moment, but there are plans to install tolls in the the latter three, sometime in the future. Generally speaking, the traffic is usually chaotic and very intense, especially during rush hours.
There is a cargo and recreational harbor called Leixões in the neighboring city of Matosinhos. Modest-sized cruise ships can dock just outside a drawbridge to the inner harbor. Beneath the south approach to the bridge is a station for the light rail system (see "By Metro" below) that goes to Oporto.
There is also a very small recreational harbor in the river Douro. As far as a major method of getting to the city, however, sea transport is not really feasible. However, you can use tour boats based along the river (especially in Oporto) to go up the Douro River, one of the most scenic short trips you'll ever make.
Porto, like most Portuguese cities, is a nightmare to drive in. Roads vary in conditions - from fully paved to cobbled lanes that can make even the most shortest of distance seem like a go-kart rally. With that said, keep in mind that the touristic part of the city (the Ribeira and Baixa) are a never ending maze of narrow streets, short tempered drivers and snakelike alleys. Better to walk (despite the fact that it's very hilly). Also, drivers seem to have forgotten how to drive (apart from pushing the pedals) - therefore, they make their own rules of the road (however, this generally does not apply to young drivers). Be prepared to lose your patience several times whilst driving.
The Porto Metro is an incredibly advanced, state of the art light rail / subway system. Developed in 2001 (for the Porto2001 - European Capital of Culture), the metro is still under construction. It has 5 lines, that run across the center of Porto, and down to some suburban areas. It is quick, and probably the most efficient way to get around Porto. Some major areas of the city, however, are not that well served by the metro, although a new lines will be opening soon. Tickets must be purchased beforehand. They can be sold at the machines in the station (note: if there are no tickets in the machine that day, take the metro to the next station and buy it there!). The ticket is printed in a card called "Andante", and you can purchase as many rides (or travels) you want, in the zone you are staying in (Porto and surrounding are Z2. Matosinhos Z3. Airport Z4). One travel will take you anywhere your zone, and you can travel as many times as you want within one hour. If you plan on using it again, Do Not throw away the card! The card can be re-charged (the card itself costs around €0.50). You can also buy daily passes, which is more convenient. If you plan on living in Porto, or staying for more than three weeks, it is recommended you get the "Andante Gold". The card costs €5, and will allow unlimited travel, without time limit. However, the zoning system is a lot different in the "Gold" version then in the "Blue version". There around around 11 zones in Andante Gold (C1, C2, S11, etc.) The centre is C1. When you buy the card, you must purchase another zone (C1 is automatically included). The Andante Gold can be used in all metro lines, the funicular and all buses . When you are buying the Andante Gold, you must have a picture of yourself (your passport photo will do. They can amplify the image from the passport to the card in seconds). An important note: your andante must be validated before you enter the metro, bus or funicular. There are no barriers to stop you at the metro, but the Metro police enter the cars and check your Andante to make sure you have validated it, and are travelling within your zones. More info at Metro do Porto
STCP Porto has many lines and buses, which are modern and comfortable. However, they are not very reliable in terms of timetable, and the bus drivers tend to go on strike from time to time, which can leave you waiting for a bus up to an hour!. However, the lines serve every alley in the city, so you can be sure that wherever you are, there is a bus stop. If you do not have the Andante (see "Metro" above), then the tickets can be purchased on board, for €1.45 or cheaper on most any newspaper seller.
A fast way of getting around the city, although traffic congestions near the city center might be a problem. However, be expected to pay a high price for these services, especially compared to the other public transportations such as bus and subway.
There are ferry boats that connect Porto to the neighboring city of Vila Nova de Gaia, although you can easily walk or travel by car, metro or bus to the other side. Also the are numerous tourist boats which travel up the Douro river, where you can get fantastic views of the green landscape the region has to offer.
Not exactly a public transportation, but its a wonderful way to see the city from above. Near the Douro there is a heliport with a helicopter available for people to use to get to know the city as a whole. Travelling accompanied will make the flight cheaper.
This is a cable railway system. Use this if you don't wish to walk up the steep streets of Porto. This system connects the Ribeira to the Batalha square, in the city centre, it also has a panoramic view of the River Duoro. As of February 2007, a single trip cost €1. However, if your Andante card (see "Metro" above) has been recently validated (in less then one hour), that you can ride it for free
This panoramic elevator runs from the Largo da Lada, and is visible behind the buildings of the Ribeira, close to the Ponte D. Luís.
The first place to begin with is the Ribeira, the part of the city near the river, which is also a good place to start visiting the World Heritage area; to the other side of the river you will see the Ribeira de Gaia, a similar area from the city of Vila Nova de Gaia (the two are only separated by the river) and where you could find the Port Wine Cellars. Next go up to the São Francisco church and the Stock Exchange palace nearby, where you can visit the most impressive Arab room in the country. The world known Modern Art museum at Serralves and the Casa da Música (House of Music) concert hall live in the area known as Boavista. From there you can reach the amazing ocean front drive, known as "Foz". Go back to the center of the city and visit Mercado do Bolhão, a traditional market of fruits, vegetables, fish and meat. Next the Aliados and the City Hall and finally the 6 bridges connecting Porto to Gaia over the Douro river, many of them providing an excellent view to the river. Porto is a mysterious city that reveals its charm to the visitor through time. Take your time, wonder through the mazes and alleys of the city. Take in the old, bohemian spirit of the city. Hike through the Ribeira and Foz do Douro regions (the latter, at sunset). Porto may not be in every tourist's Iberian Peninsula itinerary, but it's well worth a visit if you want to see a city that has changed economically, but that has kept its old traditions, something that is being forgotten in Europe today.
Fundação de Serralves, . A contemporary Museum designed by the famous architect Álvaro Siza, with a huge garden/park and an Art Deco Villa. When visiting this foundation you can visit the exhibitions, relax at the park, have lunch at the restaurant, bar or tea house and explore the shops or the library.
Pavilhão Rosa Mota, A multi purpose pavilion with nice gardens to rest which is calledalso known as "Palácio de Cristal". Nearby there is the Museu Romantico, a house where the king of Italy stayed while on exile. Also don't forget to see the views to the sea.
Museu de David, A fascinating museum tracing the origins of people called David. The museum traces ancient biblical Davids all the way through to modern day Davids - explaining the ubiquitous and prevalent use of this name for persons of all origins and character. The museum provides free entry for all people who can prove their name is David.
Take a cruise upriver. Go at least as far as Pinhão - the landscape is absolutely stunning. If you choose to do this in the summer, don't forget your factor 50 sun screen! Cruises on the Douro River .
You might also want to visit the Dragão Stadium, home of FC Porto. The team has a rich history, having won the World Club Championship or Intercontinental Cup twice, Champions League twice, UEFA Cup once and UEFA Supercup once - and the stadium is worth a visit on the architecture alone. If you are lucky you might get to see a game of the Champions League... also, just across from the stadium you have a large shopping center, according to a joke built to block the wind from affecting the stadium.
Porto has some of the finest restaurants in Portugal.
Eating at Porto is no different than elsewhere in Portugal. Expect sturdy meals, and if you can, try "Tripas à moda do Porto". Be aware, however, that this is a tripe dish. Citizens of Porto are called tripeiros (tripe-eaters) on account of this dish.
Also try a typical dish called "Francesinha", which literally translated means little French lady. This city is just about the only place in the world where you can find it. However, in many other northern Portuguese cities you can find a low quality version of it. Essentially it is a toast with a lot of meat inside (beef, pork meat, ham...). It is covered with cheese and a spicy sauce. Most importantly, this dish must be accompanied by beer and not wine.
A good tip is taking the bus or subway to mathosinhos in July, there will be the fish festival. Meaning that freshly caught fish is being served the same day at bbq's lined up in the streets just a few blocks from the main beach. You choose a fish (only whole fish) en they prepare it on the streets for you. Not a fancy restaurant, but together with the local people you are eating the best tasting fish you ever had! Try a dourada, it is delicious.
Another "must eat" is "bacalhau" which is actually salted codfish. It is cooked in various ways but you should try "Bacalhau com Natas".
Porto is dotted with thousands of different bakeries (Pao Quente) and pastry shoppes (Pastelarias). Apart from serving delicious (and quite inexpensive) goods, they are also equipped with a side-cafe that serves all sorts of coffees (Pingo, Meia de Leite, etc.) and sandwiches (Tosta Mista-ham and cheese toastie). Note that, unlike the other river side cafes in the city, these establishments do not have picturesque views of Porto (that's expensive, and in the end, you'd be the one paying for that bill). Instead, they attract tourists by offering good food at very cheap prices.
Most locals drink black coffee (espresso).
Casa Da Foz Rua Padre Luís Cabral - Porto 4150-461 PORTO Excellent Italian restaurant. Wide variety of dishes. Extremely small, so it's best to call ahead and reserve a table.
Varanda Da Barra Rua Paulo Gama 470 4150-589 PORTO Great restaurant that serves traditional Portuguese, Italian and "International" food. Nice riverside view.
There's residential homes all around the city. There's also a lot of 3-star hotels with very affordable prices. In the entire city there's only one camping site (Prelada), but it's a bit far from the center. There aren't many family houses to rent in Porto, so they'll be difficult to find.
Borges Mesquita, Rua de Álvares Cabral número 406 e 363, Cedofeita Porto It may be seem to b worth it at the first glance, but next you discover that the flats are full of cockroachs, holes in the roof through which water drops, many machines don´t work because they are very old like television, microwaves, washing and machine. Besides all that most of the staff is very rude, specially the owner. A terrible experience. They rent for 3 days up to one year and more
Oporto Sky Hostel , (+351)222 017 069, (+351)222 017 069, 24/7, Rua da Lapa, 33, One minute walking from Lapa's subway station, Very comfortable hostel. Shared and Private rooms. Free Computer and WiFi. A couple of minutes from the city centre. Hosts speaks perfectly English and Spanish
Youth Hostel (Pousada de Juventude do Porto), Paulo da Gama Street, 551, 4169-006 Porto. (Reservations here: ). Located outside of the city centre, with several buses passing just by, opened 24 hours and a terrific view over the river. €14 to €16 per night (2006)
Hospedaria 1 de Janeiro, rua 31 Janeiro
Hospedaria Novo Mundo, rua Conde de Vizela
Residencia Pedra Antiga, (+351)222407467, Rue de Santa Catarina, 830, Cheap, clean and friendly. Bathroom en suit. Free WiFi. Hosts speak no English though (French and Spanish work besides Portuguese)
Grande Hotel da Povoa , +351 252 290 400, +351 252 290 400, Largo do Passeio Alegre, nº20, 4490-428 Póvoa Varzim, Near Povoa Casino, Overlooking the beach in Povoa de Varzim, near the casino and 18km from the Oporto International Airport, 30 minutes from Oporto city. This historic hotel has 84 rooms and 2 suites, Restaurant, Bar, Meeting rooms.
Vila Galé Porto , (+351) 225 191 800, (+351) 225 191 800, Av. Fernão Magalhães, nº 7 4300-190 PORTO, The Hotel is right in the centre of Portugal’s “Invincible City” and you can shop at Porto’s best shopping district in the lively Rua de Santa Catarina, only a few metres away from the Hotel. Online Booking.
Hotel Malaposta , (+351) 222 006 278 / 947, (+351) 222 006 278 / 947, Rua da Conceição, nº80, 4050-214, Four floor hotel with contemporary décor located at Oporto’s historic and shopping area, close to Camara Municipal (City Hall), at the old part of Cedofeita, designed World Heritage by UNESCO because of its wealth in monuments and innumerous historical ruins. Online Booking.
Ipanema Park Hotel
Le Meridien Park Hotel
Porto Palácio Hotel
Infante de Sagres
Tiara Park Atlantic Porto , +351 226 072 500, +351 226 072 500, Av. da Boavista, 1466. 4100-114 Porto, 1.6km from Franco station by car., Luxury hotel with 232 guest-rooms with a highly decorated interior. Located in the city's centre.
The Yeatman Hotel §57748§ , (+351) 22 015 15 65, (+351) 22 015 15 65, R. do Choupelo, nº 250 4400-088 Vila Nova de Gaia, Luxury wine hotel opening in June 2010 in the heart of the Historic Port Wine Cellars´District.
For shopping, take a stroll around the Mercado do Bolhão which has a food market and handicrafts stores, and Santa Catarina street(highly recommended, even if only to stroll), which is near Bolhão. Cedofeita street is also a busy shopping street, as well as Boavista. Porto and the suburbs have plenty of shopping centers, including Norte Shopping, Cidade Bom Sucesso, Arrábida Shopping, Parque Nascente, Gaia Shopping, etc. These are open every day, but are usually overcrowded during the weekends and rainy days.
Port wine, of course. This is the right place for it,in the city of Gaia,just south of the Douro river. You can also find great deals in clothes and shoes, especially during discount seasons.
MUUDA, Rua do Rosário, 294-4050-522, (email: Info@muuda.com), . "Art, food and design". This concept store offers a great variety of products signed by Portuguese designers. Fashion, objects, books, jewelery, shoes, gourmet and arts. You can have lunch at MUUDA, experience a wine or sushi workshop, learn how to make tricot, the newest painting techniques, photography... and much more.
Call 112 if you have an emergency.
Be careful of pickpockets in heavily crowded areas and on public buses and trains.
Porto is generally a safe place to be if you take some precautions like walking in well-illuminated streets, keeping your money to yourself and don't show off.
Carjacking occurrences are on the high, gangs being armed and dangerous. Be extra careful when driving specially at night time. If you are attacked do not react, give your personal belongings as your life is more important than they are.
One part of Porto, near the Tourist Information Office between the cathedral and the steps to the small church, often has drunk people that could possibly be trouble. It is best to avoid that area. If you take the main road from the bus station to the cathedral and tourist information center, walk back to the bus station after you're done and then walk from there to the other sites. Avoid the shortcut from the tourist information center down stairs because near there are many incidents there.
Basic Portuguese language is very much appreciated. English, French, Galician, Catalan, Italian or Spanish may be spoken or understood at major hotels/resorts. For major tourist attractions such as river boat rides or Port Cellar tours, generally the chosen language for a given tour slot is granted on a first-come-first-served basis, if you want a tour to be guaranteed to be in your language, turn up early and request it.
The Fast Forward Language Institute, in the centre of town, offers a variety of courses in Portuguese language and culture including 3 hour "Portuguese for survival", aimed at foreign visitors to the city.
Porto is a business/financial centre. Some hotels have conference rooms, some with internet.
Dance clubs here always start very (very) late, around 1AM-2AM, and end up from 6AM-7:30AM. You have a nice choice to pick up from:
Industria Avenida do Brasil nº 843, Foz, . "local heroes and international superstars" - going since 1987, this plush nightclub on the sea-front in Foz would benefit any city. It's open until around 4AM.
Bla-Bla A quite popular chill-out disco in the Industrial Area of Matosinhos. A more pleasing club for fans of rock and alternative pop.
Via Rápida A popular disco in the Industrial Area. The nightclub opens Fridays and Saturdays and it's always crowded. The music heard are the latest dance hits and the crowd is 20ish.
Vogue A trendy night club, with a young crowd. Usually plays commercial dance hits and hip hop /R&B. Located in the industrial area of the city. Probably the worst club in the city, with way overpriced drinks and terrible music. The birds are fit, though. You could do a lot better than coming here
Act if you're in your late teens, this is the place for you. Its in the industrial area of the city, and plays all the latest worldwide hits.
Estado Novo It provides to its clients a wide range of music, from the 80's hits til today's dance hits. Every Thursday is a special night for ladies, called "wild wild woman". It opens from Thursday to Saturday and minimum consumption is €15.
Passos Manuel, Rua de Passos Manuel. A dance club/bar frequented by the arty crowd, with a varied but tasteful selection of music and a warm decór
Triplex A club that is located close to Boavista. Note that a three-storey house with a garden was transformed into a club.
HardClub Is going to be open in other place in 2007.
Maus Hábitos A very alternative bar, right in the center of the city, in front of "Coliseu".
Chic Trendy dance club in the industrial area of the city, mainly plays house music. Crowd is usually in their 20s.
Bela Cruz (currently closed) It used to be a caffee. It is at the end of Avenida da Boavista next to "Gonçalves Zarco" roundabout, know as "Castelo do Queijo" roundabout, because of the fortress next to it, by the sea. It now works as a caffe and as a restaurant with live concerts during the weekdays. On weekend nights, it is a restaurant, bar and disco. Minimal consumption is usually €10.
Mau Mau Located in the Foz region, its a popular nightclub with varying musical styles, from house to pop to R&B.
River Caffé, near the River Douro. Young crowd, and normally plays the latest dance hits. Lately it has been known for some late night violence, so you'd rather not spend too long there.
Maré Alta Located on the river front, its a small place that's known for its after hour parties. Usually a young crowd. Music is normally electronic. There are some glbt clubs/bars in Porto.Late nite scene.
Trintaeum In the Foz area near the lighthouse, quite small, cool decoration, and cool crowd and not too pricey. Open till very late.
Triplex On the Avenida Boavista in a big old house. Fantastic garden bar which is great in the summer. There's a restaurant upstairs too.
Praia do Ourigo Beach bar in Foz. Has to be the bar with the best view in town. Set on stilts over the beach. Has a restaurant too.
Cais de Gaia This is a bar region in riverfront area in the neighbour city of Vila Nova de Gaia. Its a modern zone for bars and clubs, usually priced a little higher than normal bars. You have a great view of the river and the beautiful city of Porto.
Ribeira region This area is full of bars and pubs where you can have a pleasant time with an incredible view, before going to the bigger clubs around the city. Most bars are relatively close to each other, and in some there is no entrance fee. Usually most of these bars close from 3AM-4AM, after which the area becomes deserted. Be sure to go either home or to a club after, because when this area becomes deserted you may feel a bit insecure.
Prioridade Located in the Ribeira region, this bar is one of the cheapest in the area. It's probably the only decent place in the whole of the Ribeira region (and probably, in the city) where you can get a large beer for only a few euros. They also serve spirits and cocktails, at very cheap prices as well. My suggestion, if you are planning a night out, is to get loaded at this bar before clubbing, since the price of drinks in the clubs can be outrageously high and you may find yourself with no taxi fare money to return to your home, hotel, hostel, etc. It's quite tricky to find, since it's tucked away in a rather isolated (but quite nice) place; it's near the D. Luis I bridge. Ask the locals, they'll know where it is
During the summer, try one of the many quality beaches located near Porto, in the southern part of Gaia . Gaia has plenty of beaches with blue flags (Miramar, Aguda, Granja), a certification of the quality of the beach.
If you'd like to try some of the bars of Oporto, there is a quite interesting route you can take from Ancora de Ouro, passing by Gestos (this bar has been closed). Then you can go to Pinguim, a bit down the street, and finish off with the huge variety of pubs and bars in the Ribeira.
Dining by the river in Cais de Gaia in one of the many restaurants available. The offer goes from Portuguese, modern food, Indian, Brazilian...
Then go on to the other side of the river and enjoy some of the typical bars and discos from Porto in Ribeira.
And if you're really in a party mood, finish your night in one of the many clubs the city has to offer, most are located in the Industrial region and in the upmarket Foz area, or just visit some in the neighboring cities of Matosinhos,Vila do Conde,Espinho(beach and casino),Maia,Penafiel,Amarante,Povoa de Varzim(beach and casino).
Don't forget to go on a fantastic boat trip up the Douro river, you'll be fascinated by the magnificent view. This area is certified by the UNESCO.
Visit the net target array in Matosinhos. Local legend has it that this is where the Greek Minotaur fell from Avarine, a cloud formation some 17 miles above Greece, with the golden fleece. This led to the formation of the modern day Porto in circa 1970.
Go on a day trip to the Minho region. Viana do Castelo, Braga, Caminha, Ponte de Lima and Arcos de Valdevez, for instance, all have something to offer, and the region is very beautiful. Taste the "Vinho Verde", freely translated as "Green Wine" - this is mostly a low alcoholic grade, young and fresh kind of wine, that you won't find anywhere else.
Go on a day trip to the Gerês National Park. The wildlife and nature in this park are really worth a visit, and the scenario is magnificent.
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