photo by Rui Ornelas

Namibia is in Southern Africa, bordering South Africa, Botswana, Angola, Zambia and the Atlantic Ocean. Formerly a colony of Germany, Namibia was administered by South Africa under a League of Nations mandate after WWI, and annexed as a province of South Africa after WWII. The South-West African People's Organization (SWAPO) launched a guerrilla war for independence in 1966, but did not gain independence until 1990.

Namibia boasts remarkable natural attractions such as the Namib desert, the Fish River Canyon Park, Etosha National Park and the Kalahari desert. Its people speak nine different languages, including some of the Khoisan languages which include the 'clicks' that present an enigma to most native English-speakers. Namibia produces some of the world's highest quality diamonds.


Inhabited from the dawn of time by the San, also known as the "Bushmen", invaded by the Bantu, colonized by the Germans (who called it "South West Africa") and taken over by South Africa after WWI, Namibia is in many ways quite similar to South Africa. Since it was ruled under the apartheid system, Namibia also has many of the problems resulting from that system.

It is important to be aware that race is a common part of Namibian discourse. That is to say, Namibians will refer to the race of others more frequently than travellers from places where race is typically not an issue, would expect. Because of apartheid, race is an issue in many spheres of life, so it comes up a lot. In spite of this, the various races do get along well in Namibia, and it is fairly uncommon to find racial tensions flaring. Apartheid was never implemented as strictly in Namibia as in South Africa, so racial tensions are generally lower.

Namibia is similar to South Africa, and if you're used to travelling in one country, travelling in the other country is quite easy. There are some subtle differences. For example, in South Africa a non-white person may choose to speak English rather than Afrikaans (as a political choice) whereas among Namibia's mixed-race population (who call themselves 'colored' in Namibia and South Africa) Afrikaans is a proud part of their culture. And many people still speak German. Overlooking these differences isn't going to cause offense, but they're handy to know.

The public holidays in Namibia are:

  • January 1, New Years' Day

  • March 21, Independence Day

  • Easter weekend, (

  • May 1, Workers Day

  • May 4, Cassinga Day

  • May 25, Africa Day

  • August 26, Heroes' Day

  • December 10, Human Rights Day

  • December 25, Christmas Day

  • December 26, Day of Goodwill (Family Day)


  • Caprivi - The panhandle in the north-east of the country. With two major rivers, the Caprivi is one of the few areas of Namibia that has water.
  • Northern Namibia - North of the Ugab river mouth to the border with Angola.
  • Central Namibia - Between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Ugab river mouth.
  • Southern Namibia - South of the Tropic of Capricorn.


  • Windhoek -- Namibia's capital and largest city.

  • Keetmanshoop -- Small town on the rail lines and highway, jumping off point for treks in the Fish River Canyon Park.

  • Lüderitz -- Colonial-era German coastal town.

  • Ondangwa and Oshakati -- Twin towns in the heart of Owamboland, northern Namibia.

  • Outjo -- Gateway to the Etosha National Park, Koakoveld and Damaraland.

  • Swakopmund -- Coastal town, a mecca for Namibians on holiday.

  • Tsumeb -- Mining town east of Etosha.

  • Tsumkwe -- rural desert town surrounded by San (Bushmen) villages.

  • Walvis Bay -- Desert sports.

  • Warmquelle

Other destinations

  • Brandberg Mountains -- The highest mountain in Namibia at 2 573 m.

  • Etosha National Park

  • Kolmanskop -- A ghost town just outside Lüderitz.

  • Waterberg Plateau Park -- Another good place to watch wildlife.

  • Sossusvlei -- The most popular entry point for people wanting to visit the Namib desert.

  • Skeleton Coast -- The northern coastal part of the Namib desert, named for the dozens of ships that were beached in the thick fog that is frequent where the desert meets the Atlantic.

  • Spitzkoppe -- the Matterhorn of Namibia.

  • Fish River Canyon Park--The second largest canyon in the world.

  • Opuwo-- capital of Kunene Region and an ideal starting point for stocking up before venturing further into Kaokoland and the rest of NW Kunene.

  • Kaokoland - home to the Himba tribe, desert elephants, desert lions, Epupa Waterfalls and many more attractions in this north-western corner of Namibia.

Getting there


Tourists may enter Namibia for up to 3 months.

Citizens from the following countries do not require a visa to visit Namibia: Angola, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, Countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States, Cuba, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, New Zealand, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Russia, South Africa, Singapore, Spain, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Visitors not from the above countries need to apply for a visa from the Namibian consulate in their country of origin or the Ministry of Home Affairs, +264 (0)61 292-9111, Private Bag 13200, Windhoek.

All visitors require a passport valid for at least 6 months after date of entry into Namibia.

By plane

Hosea Kutako International Airport, located 45 minutes east of Windhoek, is the main entry point for air traffic. Air Namibia operates flights from Frankfurt, London, Cape Town, Johannesburg, Victoria Falls and Maun to the international airport. Flights between the smaller Eros Airport and Cape Town are also available. South African Airways and no-frills Kulula.com operate flights from South Africa, too. See Discount airlines in Africa for more options.

By car

There are 9 commonly used border posts with neighbouring counties:


  • Oshikango (Santa Clara), +264 (0)65 26-4615

  • Ruacana, +264 (0)65 27-0290


  • Buitepos (Mamuno), +264 (0)62 56-0404, On the *Trans-Kalahari-Highway*, connecting the B6 and **A2** between Gobabis and **Ghanzi**

  • Mhembo (Shakawe), +264 (0)66 25-9900

South Africa

  • Araimsvlei (Naroegas), +264 (0)63 28-0057, Connecting the B3 and **N14** between Karasburg and **Upington**

  • Verloorsdrift (Onseepkaans), +264 (0)63 26-9134, Connecting the C10 and **R358** between Karasburg and **Pofadder**

  • Noordoewer (Vioolsdrift), +264 (0)63 29-7122, Connecting the B1 and **N7** between Keetmanshoop and **Springbok**

  • Oranjemund (Alexander Bay), +264 (0)63 23-2756


  • Wenela (Sesheke), +264 (0)66 25-3430

By bus

The most convenient international bus service into Namibia runs from Cape Town and Victoria Falls. There is also service from Johannesburg. See Intercape Mainliner for schedules and fares. Using a combination of buses, hitchhiking and kombis you can also get to Namibia from anywhere in Botswana.

By train

The regular overnight train from Upington in South Africa to Windhoek, operated by TransNamib , has been discontinued. It is no longer possible to get into or out of Namibia by train.

Traveling around

By car

Despite the vast distances in Namibia, most people get around by land, and not air.

Namibia's roads are very good, with primary routes paved, and secondary routes of well-graded gravel. An all-wheel drive vehicle is not necessary except on tertiary roads and the Skeleton Coast. Driving at night is very dangerous because there is a lot of wildlife on the roads. Traffic drives on the left.

Namibians often estimate the time to drive between places according to their experience driving quickly on dirt (untarred) roads. Add a third and you will arrive alive with kidneys intact!

  • CABS Car hire Namibia (Car hire Windhoek) , +264 61 305 912, +264 61 305 912, 282 Independence Ave, Windhoek

  • Windhoek Car Hire (Windhoek Car hire) , +264 61 306 553 , +264 61 306 553 , 124 Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo Street, Windhoek

  • Thrifty Car Rental , +264 61 220 738, Offers 24 hour car rental service for a scenic drive through Namibia

By minibus taxi

It is quite easy to get around using combies (shared or long-distance taxis). Just ask around to find out where the taxi rank is (sometimes there are several taxi ranks, each one with departures to different areas of the country). Drivers are not in the habit of overcharging foreigners.

By bus

  • TransNamib , Operates air-conditioned buses (and trains) to destinations all over Namibia via their *StarLine* service.

By train

The national railway company of Namibia, TransNamib , operates trains (and buses) to destinations all over Namibia via their StarLine passenger service. Some routes available are

The StarLine scheduled service conveys passengers via special coaches hooked on the back of freight trains. These passenger coaches offer comfortable airline-style seating with air-conditioning and (sometimes) video entertainment. Vending machines provide refreshments on long journeys. StarLine, , +264 (0)61 298-2032

Other rail services operating in the country are:

  • Desert Express , +264 (0)61 298-2600, +264 (0)61 298-2600, The Desert Express is a luxury tourist train that traverses Namibia regularly, taking tourists to such destinations as Walvis Bay, Swakopmund and Etosha National Park. Buses are used to transport visitors from train stations to the various sights.

By plane

  • Westwing , +264 (61) 221091, +264 (61) 221091, Offers both scheduled and charter flights throughout the country

By tour

Several tour companies operate in Namibia. Each is unique in services offered but most operate with safety in mind.

  • Big Five Namibia Tours , Luxury tours throughout Namibia. Several tours offered based on interests.


Namibia is a country with great national parks where you can see some of the finest African flora and fauna and you can see some mammals that have adapted to the extreme heat. In the northern part of the Kunene region you can see the rare desert elephants.


Vegetarians need not apply. Namibians have a very high intake of meat. It is possible to be a vegetarian in Namibia, however, as there are some Peace Corps workers who live there for two years and remain vegetarian throughout.

  • Fruits and Vegetables, you will find in Namibia avocados, bananas, mandarin oranges, oranges, pineapples, kiwi, peanuts, beans, rice, couscous, millet, tomatoes, corn, bread, onions, pasta, potatoes, and celery. Many of these foods are imported and may be expensive and limited to seasonal availability

  • If visiting Windhoek, you will find local and international cuisine in the many diverse restaurants and cafes. Pretty much anything you want, you will find here.


Namibia's nightclubs are always happening and always open late (pretty much until the last person leaves). They are mostly located in bigger cities: Windhoek, Swakopmund and Oshakati. There are not many bars, though there is very good beer, and there are a lot of shebeens. The flagship beer of Namibia is Windhoek Lager , an easy-drinking filtered beer, not dissimilar to many German brews.

  • Christel Boltman, 063250200, 18h00-22h00, P O Box 12 Gochas, South east from Mariental, 3 course gourmet dinners on red dune under the stars accompanied with staff entertainment


Hotels and Holiday Rentals

A hotel provides accommodation to the traveling public, has a reception area and offers at least a "breakfast room" or communal eating area. In general a hotel makes food and beverage services available to a guest, though these may be outsourced or provided by the hotel.

There are a number of Hotel chains that operate nationally

  • Protea Hotels , +27 (0)21 430-5000, +27 (0)21 430-5000

  • Southern Sun , +27 (0)11 461-9744, +27 (0)11 461-9744, Wide range of accommodation from budget to splurge


Namibia (along with Lesotho, South Africa and Swaziland) is a member of the Southern African Common Monetary Area and as such the Namibian Dollar (NAD) is pegged 1:1 to the South African Rand (ZAR). Both the Namibian Dollar and South African Rand is legal tender in Namibia though change will usually be given in Namibian Dollars.

Banks in Namibia will convert Namibian Dollars for South African Rand and vice versa without charge or paperwork. Since any bank or currency exchange outside Namibia (including other members of the Common Monetary Area) will charge a substantial service fee to change currency, it is advisable to make use of a Namibian Bank before leaving the country.

It is also advisable to carry proof (for example ATM receipts) that money you are taking out of the country is money that you brought into the country in the first place.

Rough conversion rates (January 2009) are: 10:1 (USD), 13:1 (EUR) and 15:1 (GBP). Current official exchange rates are available from the Namibian Central Bank

Automated teller machines are available in Windhoek, Swakopmund, Luderitz, Tsumeb, and other towns and cities. It is best to use only teller machines that are inside a mall or other building. Always be careful to make sure no one is watching you enter your PIN, and be vigilant about typical scams (e.g. machines that seem to eat your card and won't give it back after you enter the PIN).

Prices in shops are fixed, but prices in open markets or from street vendors are open to barter.

In most towns you will be approached by many locals to buy souvenirs, when this happens a 'no thanks' will usually suffice and they will leave you alone. It is common to haggle. Try to buy as much as possible from small shops instead of bigger ones, it's the best way to help the poor local population


include Oshiwambo, Herrero, Nama, Damara, various San languages,and Silozi.

English is the official language and is widely spoken. However the majority of older Namibians (those educated before independence) only speak English as a third language, and therefore the standard is fairly poor. English is more widely spoken in the North, as it was adopted as a medium of instruction earlier than in the South. Older Nambibians in the South are more likely to speak Afrikaans or German.

Afrikaans is spoken by many, and is the first language of the "Coloureds" as well as the Afrikaners. English is spoken as a first language by the remaining English families, and German is spoken by the Namibians of German descent, who tend to be in Windhoek, Swakopmund and various farms scattered through the country. German is one of the leading commercial languages as well. Portuguese is spoken by the immigrants from Angola.


Namibians are very proud of their country. It is a well developed country (albeit still a developing nation) with all the modern amenities and technologies. Namibians have been exposed to a surprisingly wide variety of peoples during the United Nations supervising of the elections, as well as from various volunteer organizations. They are not offended by Westerners wearing shorts, nor by women wearing pants. It is not uncommon to see Afrikaners with thick, knee-high socks (keeps snakes from getting a good bite) and shorts walking about. It is customary when greeting someone to ask them how they're doing. It's a simple exchange where each person asks "How are you?" (or the local version "Howzit?") and responds with a correspondingly short answer, and then proceed with whatever your business is about. It's a good idea to do this at tourist info booths, in markets, when getting into taxis, even in shops in Windhoek (though it's normally not done in some of the bigger stores in the malls).

Stay healthy

The HIV infection rate in Namibia is about 25%. Do not have sex!

Namibia's medical system is modern and capable of attending to whatever needs you may have. Staff are well trained and so HIV transmission in hospitals is not an issue. This applies to government and private hospitals alike, though line-ups are often shorter at private hospitals, and there have been cases of incorrect diagnosis in government hospitals.

The northern part of Namibia is in a malaria-risk zone, so consult a doctor before leaving, and take appropriate malaria precautions when travelling in these areas.

Namibia's water supply is usually safe to drink, except where labelled otherwise. Campsites next to rivers often get their water directly from the river, so do not drink it!

Having said all this, make sure you consult a physician specializing in health issues of Southern Africa, as well as things like the Centre for Disease Control web page. Make sure you satisfy yourself of the safety of anything you're getting into.


Namibia is a peaceful country and is not involved in any wars. With the end of the Angolan civil war in May 2002, the violence that spilled over into north-eastern Namibia is no longer an issue.

Namibia has relatively high crime rate. See the warning for ATMs above, in the Buy section. For men it is not prudent to walk or ride taxis alone in Windhoek or Oshakati after midnight. For women, it is not prudent after 9PM. Pickpockets can be a problem. Lately there are many armed robberies reported. In most of all cases tourists get robbed of belongings carried with them in a bag. Reported robberies all took places just outside of the city centre. Police reported that most likely taxi-drivers are involved and spot tourists and coordinate by cell phone the robbers. Be carefull and alert! All these warnings should be taken in context, because the threat is not as serious as it might sound. If you are alert and take some common sense precautions then you will have no problems.

Travellers should have no problem visiting the townships, though it's advisable not to visit the townships alone unless you're familiar with the area. If you have been travelling in Southern Africa for a few months, you probably know what you're doing.

Namibia has a serious problem with driving under the influence of alcohol. The problem is aggravated because most people don't consider it a problem. When driving/walking on weekend evenings, be extra alert.


It is extremely difficult for foreigners to get work permits in Namibia. With 40% unemployment, the government is not enthusiastic about letting people in who would take jobs from Namibians. It is possible to get a work permit to volunteer, though this requires going through the same drawn out process as the normal work permit.


By phone

Namibia's country code is 264. Each city or region has a two-digit area code. When calling long distance within Namibia, prefix the area code with a '0'. Mobile phones are very common and run on the GSM network, using the same frequency as Europe and the rest of Africa. There are Internet cafes in Windhoek, Swakopmund and Opuwo, and hostels often have access as well.

Namibia has two GSM cellular phone operators, MTC and CellOne and both offer prepaid options. Starter packs and airtime vouchers are readily available at most stores.

Contact & location

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English 7% (official), Afrikaans common language of most of the population and about 60% of the white population, German 32%, indigenous languages: Oshivambo, Herero, Nama - Namibian dollar (NAD); South African rand (ZAR)
Areatotal: 825,418 sq km
Population2,030,692 (July 2006 est.)
ReligionChristian 80% to 90% (Lutheran 50% at least), indigenous beliefs 10% to 20%
TimezoneUTC +1