Costa Rica is a country in Central America. In the north it borders Nicaragua and in the south Panama. To the west, there is the Pacific Ocean and to the east, the Caribbean Sea.
Costa Rica is Spanish for rich coast. As such, one can expect to find this place to be the ideal tropical paradise. A native song says that the Virgin Mary came down to Costa Rica and never went back to Heaven.
Costa Rica has bewilderingly diverse landscapes, flora, and fauna. From rain forests, to dry tropical and temperate forests, to volcanoes, to Caribbean and Pacific beaches, to high mountains, and marshy lowlands.
Costa Rica is one of the world's most popular destinations for eco-tourists because of its biodiversity. It has been stated in various places that Costa Rica may contain as much as 6% of the worlds plant & animal species in a country that is only as large as the States of Vermont and New Hampshire (combined) in the U.S.A. Both tropical plant and animal species abound in Costa Rica. Some of the more impressive plants range from huge ficus trees with epiphytes abounding on their limbs to approximately 1500 different orchids. The animals are equally as impressive whether it's a Jaguar the largest cat of the new world or the ever illusive Margay or the wonderful birds like the Green or Scarlet Macaws ("Lapas" in the Costa Rican Spanish.) The amphibians are equally as impressive, the Poison dart frogs with their bright colors are bound to catch your attention or the giant Cane toads.
San José - The capital.
Alajuela - location of Juan Santamaría International Airport
Cartago - Costa Rica's first capital
Dominical - the South Pacific coast's largest city, among incredibly biodiversity and natural beauty
Heredia - Coffee plantations
Liberia - Location of Daniel Oduber International Airport and gateway to the beaches of Guanacaste, such as Samara, Nosara, Carillo
Puerto Limón - Main city on the Caribbean side
Puntarenas - Ferry to Nicoya Peninsula
Quesada - the largest city by far in the country's North, surrounded by hot springs popular with Costa Rican vacationers
Cahuita National Park
Chirripo National Park
Cocos Island National Park
Arenal Volcano - active volcano
Manuel Antonio National Park
Monteverde and Santa Elena Cloud Forest Reserves
Pacuare River and Protected Zone
Rincón de la Vieja Volcano National Park
Most vistors can get into Costa Rica without the need of a Visa and can stay in the country for 90 days.
Juan Santamaría Airport (SJO) is located close to the cities Alajuela, Heredia and the capital San José.
SJO is currently under remodeling, and in July 2009 its operation was taken over by the same organization that runs the airports in Houston, Texas. An otherwise pleasant airport features the normal assortment of duty-free shops, interesting souvenir and bookshops, but an inadequate selection of overpriced restaurants (Church's Chicken, Burger King, Poás Deli Cafe and Papa John's pizza). SJO is serviced daily by Air Caraibes, American Airlines, Continental Airlines, Delta Airlines, Frontier Airlines, Iberia, Thomas Cook, LTU, Mexicana Airlines, Spirit Airlines, United Airlines, US Airways, Air Canada as well as Taca, Copa Airlines and AirPanama . Connecting the airport with cities such as: Los Angeles, New York, Houston, Dallas, Miami, Philadelphia, Charlotte, Atlanta, Phoenix, Orlando, Chicago, Newark, Toronto, Montreal, Madrid, Frankfurt,Mexico City, Bogota, Caracas, Lima, Guayaquil, Quito, and all Central America. Frontier Airlines begun non-stop service from Denver on November 30th, 2007 and flies to SJO 5 days a week.
There is a US $26 exit fee at the Juan Santamaría Airport. This must be paid in cash, or by Visa (in which case it will be processed as a cash advance). The fee can also be paid in advance at some hotels or banks (Banco Credito Agricola de Cartago and Banco de Costa Rica).
Daniel Oduber Quirós International Airport (LIR) is near Liberia in the Guanacaste province. This airport is closest to the Pacific Northwest coast. Liberia receives flights from Delta, American, United, Continental, Air Canada, Sky Service (charter), and First Choice (charter). Connecting the airport with cities like: Atlanta, Los Angeles, Chicago, Miami, Houston, Dallas, Newark, Toronto, Vancouver, Calgary, London, etc.
The Interamericana (Panamerican Highway) runs through Costa Rica and is the main entry point by car. The border post in the north (to Nicaragua) is called Peñas Blancas and in the south (to Panamá) Paso Canoas. Virtually all travel out of the capital (except to the Caribbean side) will involve traveling this road. There are many speed traps along this major artery, as well as some random police checks for seat belts and, especially near the borders, for valid travel documents. The highway speed is 80km/h, but since the Interamericana (a.k.a. Highway #1) passes through innumerable small towns the speed frequently drops to 50 or even 30 km/h as you suddenly find yourself in a school zone. Most of the highway is not divided. A common indicator that a police checkpoint is ahead is that oncoming cars flick their lights at you. Drivers also appear to flick their lights sometimes when someone has overtaken them. A speeding ticket is at the most 20,000 Colones (US $40), and although the police are generally congenial, foreign drivers are occasionally illegally offered an "on the spot" fine that is half that or less.
Many Costa Rican roads are in terrible shape, and short distances can take a very long time. Even the only road in and out of popular tourist destinations are riddled with major potholes. To avoid potholes, drivers will often snake through the left and right lanes, usually returning to the right when oncoming traffic approaches. While this may seem erratic, you can become quickly accustomed to it. If you see a tree branch or pole poking out of the middle of a road, that is a "sign" that there is a deep sinkhole, pothole or manhole without a cover. Stay away from it.
Driving at night is highly inadvisable due to the unpredictability of road conditions and lack of safety features such as guard rails on the many hairpin turns in the hills.
Many roads are unpaved, and even the paved roads have lots of unpaved sections and washed out or unfinished bridges. Bridges are often only wide enough for one vehicle; one direction usually has priority. Do not expect to get anywhere quickly, supposed 3 hour journeys can turn into 5 or more hours easily: there are always slow cars/buses/trucks on the road. This causes a lot of crazy driving, which you begin to emulate if you are in-country for more than a day. The government does not seem to be fixing the infrastructure well (or at all!) 50km/hr is good over unpaved roads. Some hotels, in the mountains, require a four-wheel-drive vehicle to reach the destination. Call ahead. This is more for the ground clearance then the quality of the road. Four-wheel-drive vehicles are widely available at the car rentals near the airport, but call ahead.
Navigation can prove challenging. Road signs are relatively few, and those that do exist can be inaccurate. It is recommended that you have a good road map with the small towns listed, since road signs will often only indicate the next town, not the direction of the next major city. Towns generally do not have town-limit signs; you are best to look at the names on the roadside food stores and restaurants to determine the place you are passing. Stop and ask, practice your Spanish. The center of town is usually a public park with a Catholic Church across from it.
There are no formal street addresses in Costa Rica, but two informal systems exist. The first (often used in tourist information) indicates the road on which the establishment is located (e.g. "6th Avenue") together with the crossroad interval (e.g. "between 21st and 23rd Streets"). In practice, street signs are virtually non-existent, and locals do not even know the name of the street they are on. The second system, which is much more reliable and understood by locals, is known as the "Tico address", usually involving an oriented distance (e.g. "100 meters south, 50 meters east") from a landmark (e.g. "the cathedral").
It is worth noting the particular road naming system in San Jose. Avenues run east-west and streets run north-south. The numbering is less straighforward. Starting at Central Avenue going South are 2nd, 4th, 6th Avenue, etc. while going North are 1st, 3rd, 5th, etc. Streets use even numbers going west, and odd numbers going east. This means that if you are at 7th Avenue and 4th Street, and looking for 6th Avenue and 5th Street, you are on the wrong side of town.
Gas stations are full service and the guys there are very cool about taking dollars or Colón(es). The interesting thing is that Costa Rica is small so you do not burn a lot of gas getting places even though it seems like forever. Costa Rica is also land of the traffic circles so people from Europe should have no problem but North Americans should make sure they know how they work. The gas stations really are full service, and you can have your oil checked, water filled, and tire pressure topped off. The state owns a gasoline company and the private companies raise their prices to the level of the state set price. It is recommendable to always use super gas and not regular, the regular is soiled. If not you will have to change the gas filter and clean the injectors after 5000 miles.
There is an extensive network of bus routes within the country with reasonable fares. Departures are very punctual, though routes often take longer than expected. Stop by the Tourist Office downtown (underneath the Gold Museum in the Plaza--ask anyone and they'll be able to help you out). The bus system is a safe and even fun way to see a lot of the country cheaply and not have to worry about car rentals. Getting around without Spanish is no problem.
There is twice daily boat service from Los Chiles (in NE Costa Rica), former home of the Contras, to San Carlos, Nicaragua. The cost is about $5, plus a $1 fee. The boats usually leave San Carlos at 10:30 am and 4 pm.
Small ship cruises carrying less than 100 passengers begin in Panama and end in Costa Rica or reverse. These cruises visit popular National Parks such as Manuel Antonio but also visit remote beaches and coastline not accessible by road. Prices range from $2000-$6000 per person for 7-10 day tours.
Larger cruise ships occasionally dock or anchor at Porto Caldera and Puntarenas for a day or so, usually to begin, end or continue cruises with itineraries through the Panama Canal to or from Caribbean or U.S. ports.
Keep in mind the pet peeve most tourists have with tico kindness: often times when a tico has no idea where a certain destination you may have had in mind is, he or she will simply direct you to a random location. Often simply incomprehensible, these directions are a reflection on the cultural approach to kindness many Costa Ricans adopt. Ask for directions from several different people if you aren't convinced by the first answer you get.
Most major tourist destinations in Costa Rica are serviced by at least two daily buses from and to San Jose. The advantages of public transportation in Costa Rica are that tickets are cheap (rarely more than $7 US per person) and they cover most towns around the country.
One great advantage of renting a car is that you can visit many of the secluded beaches and mountain areas. And with the power of the Internet, you can now rent just about any vehicle online and have it waiting for you when you arrive.
For 350-700 USD a week you can rent a econocar/mid size 4WD. Insurance is the majority of this cost and it is not optional. 4 wheel drive is good for extensive traveling outside the Central Valley, especially in the wet season. In the dry season going from La Fortuna to Monteverde via a direct route was over a boulder strewn 15-30 MPH road. 4WD was also useful on the Nicoya coast.(above based on 2001 roads). Driving in Costa Rica is, by American standards, dangerous. Costa Rica has one of the highest deaths by car accidents in the world. And the roads are usualy not in very good conditions. It's often possible to rent a car with a local driver from the various tour companies, if driving yourself seems a bit daunting.
Due to the condition of most roads outside San Jose, car insurance, even with a zero-deductible option, generally does not cover tires and rims. Car rental companies requires a guaranty deposit from 750 USD during the rental period and a credit card is necessary for this process. Using an insurance program provided by some types of gold or platinum credit cards is a good advantage since these credit cards would cover small scratches, small dents as well as the entire rented vehicle in case of collision or theft. Reliable companies are Dollar , Wild Rider with competitive rates and the cheapest one is Explorer Car Rental, great cars and good service.
You have to exercise caution when renting a car in Costa Rica, where it is not uncommon for rental companies to claim for "damage" they insist you inflicted on the vehicle. It is by far the best policy to rent a car through a Costa Rican travel agent. If you are traveling on a package, your agent will sort this out. Otherwise, go into an ICT-accredited travel agent in San Jose and ask them to arrange rental for you. This should be no more expensive than renting on your own and will help guard against false claims of damage and other accusations; rental companies will be less willing to make trouble with an agent who regularly sends them clients than with individual customers who they may not see again.
Make sure to check the car carefully before you sign off the damage sheet. Check the oil, brake fluid, fuel gauge (to make sure it's full) and that there is a spare tire with a good air pressure and a jack. Look up the Spanish for "scratches" (rayas) and other relevant terminology first, so you can at least scrutinize the rental company's assessment. Ask them to write down all the minor damages, not only to check on the drawing and keep a copy of this document on you.
Take the maximum insurance (around $15-20 per day); because of the country's high accident rate, you need to be covered for damage to the vehicle, yourself, any third party and public property.
For 300-900 USD a week you can rent a dual sport bike or a chopper. A motorcycle rental company requires a guaranty deposit from 600 USD during the rental period. Reliable companies are Wild Rider (www.wild-rider.com) and Maria Alexander (www.mariaalexandra.com) with competitive rates, great bikes and good service.
Another easy way to get around Costa Rica is to use the services of mini-vans. At most of the hotels, the receptionist is able to assist travelers who want to travel across the country by arranging for the services of a driver. Rates are reasonable (US$29 per person, for example, to get from San Jose to Tamarindo in April 2007) The drivers know the roads well; the vans are clean and comfortable; and they take you from door to door.
Taxis are available in most large cities. They are usually inexpensive, charging only a few dollars to get most anywhere within the city. The meter is called "la maria"; ask the driver to turn it on immediately upon getting in the car, or he may leave it off and make up his own, more expensive, price when you get to your destination. Official taxis are red with a yellow triangle on the side. If you are alone, especially if you are female, ride in the back seat as riding in the front with the driver can be seen as suggestive.
Although illegal, hitchhiking is far more common in rural areas than in urban areas. If you choose to hitchhike, Costa Ricans are generally very friendly and helpful, particularly in more rural areas where traffic on the dirt roads can be light. As always, be gracious and offer a bit of money, which will probably be declined.
There are two internal airlines that connects the major tourist towns. You are limited to 25 or 30 pounds of carry on person, depending on the airline, Nature Air allows more luggage per person as their planes are larger and also twin engines. The main airlines are NatureAir and Sansa.
Wildlife - Costa Rica is world famous for having an incredibly high level of biodiversity throughout its tropical forests (this covers what you may hear referred to as rain forests, cloud forests, and dry forests). There are tropical mammals such as monkeys, sloths, tapirs, and wild cats as well as an amazing assortment of insects and other animals. There are many many birds (both migratory and resident) - more on that below. With 25% of the country being national parks and protected areas, there are still many places you can go to see the abundant wildlife and lush vegetation of the country. Just like anywhere, the farther you get off the beaten path, the more likely you are to see a wide variety of flora and fauna.
There is such biodiversity in Costa Rica not only because it's a land bridge between North and South America, but also because the terrain is so varied and there are weather patterns moving in from both the Pacific and Atlantic/Caribbean. There are impressive volcanoes, mountain areas, rivers, lakes, and beaches all throughout the country. There are many beautiful beaches - most of the popular ones are on the Pacific side but the Caribbean has many excellent beaches as well.
Bird Watching - One of the most wonderful activities for people who love nature is bird watching. You can enjoy bird watching in many areas of Costa Rica. Due to the great diversity of climates, temperatures and forest types in Costa Rica, there is a wonderful variety of birds, with over 800 species. Some helpful books available on bird watching are Birds of Costa Rica by F. Gary Stiles and Alexander Skutch (Cornell University Press) or An Illustrated Field Guide to Birds of Costa Rica, illustrated by Victor Esquivel Soto. These books can be found at certain bookstores in San José or before coming to Costa Rica. They are both heavy books; many people tear out the plates of the Stiles & Skutch book to carry into the field and leave the rest of the book in their car or room. Plastic cards with the most common birds are available for many areas and are sold at gift shops.
Costa Rica's list of birds includes:
16 species of parrots including the fabulous scarlet macaw.
50 species of hummingbirds.
10 species of trogons with the resplendent quetzal as the jewel.
6 species of toucans, including the keel-billed and chestnut-mandibled.
Half the bird species in Costa Rica are passerines including warblers, sparrows and finches.
16 species of ducks, including the fulvous whistling, white-faced ruddy and American wigeon.
13 species of falcons, including the peregrine falcon, merlin and American kestrel.
36 species of prey, including the gray hawk, swallow-tailed kite, solitary eagle and northern harrier.
6 species of cracidae which look like turkeys.
8 species of new world quails.
15 species of rallideas including the rufous-necked wood-rail, American coot and ruddy crake.
19 species of owls including the black-and-white, Costa Rican pygmy, central American pygmy and striped.
3 species of potoos including the great, northern and common.
The coastal list of birds includes:
19 species of herons & wading birds such as the great blue heron, great egret, boat-billed heron, reddish egret and yellow-crowned night-heron.
2 species of recurvirostraide which are waders and include the black-necked stilt and American avocet.
2 species of jacans including the northern and wattled.
34 species of scolopacidae including the short-billed dowitcher, spotted sandpiper, wandering tattler, surfbird, and red phalarope.
9 species of gulls including the gray, Heermann's and ring-billed.
14 species of sternidae (terns) including the gull-billed tern, Forster's tern, least tern and white tern.
4 species of vultures including the the king culture.
24 species of doves and pigeons.
11 species of swifts including the black, spot-fronted and Costa Rican.
6 species of kingfishers including the green, Amazon and American pygmy.
5 species of threskiornithidaes including the roseate spoonbill and white-faced ibis.
Good Bird watching spots include:
Monteverde Cloud Forest has more than 400 species of birds, including resplendent quetzals.
Tortuguero National Park has 300 species of birds.
Santa Rosa National Park has more than 250 species of birds.
Cahuita National Park has toucans, parrots, rufous kingfishers; the park is on the beach.
La Sevla Biological Station in the northern lowlands has 420 species of birds.
Helconia Island has 228 species of birds.
Corcovado National Park has 400 species of birds and 1,200 scarlet macaws.
Huedal Nacional Terraba-Sierpe has a myriad of birds along the coast and swamps.
Carara National Park has 400 species of birds.
Tárcoles has 400 species of birds and great river tours highlighting crocodiles.
Whale Marine National Park has frigate birds, boobies, ibises and pelicans.
La Amistad National Park has 500 species of birds including resplendent quetzals.
Most hotels, as well as tourist information centers, will provide bird watching guides, maps and other essentials for bird watching. Unless you are an experienced neotropical birder, it can be a lot more productive to go out with an experienced birding guide. Do not forget to bring a hat, rain gear, boots, binoculars and camera. In hot areas, an umbrella can be more useful than a poncho or jacket. Southern Costa Rica is generally considered the better option for bird watching.
Volcanoes -Costa Rica is one of the most seismologicly active countries in the western hemisphere, and as a result several volcanoes have sprouted over the years- most notably volcanoes Poas, Irazu, and Arenal.
Costa Rica is a country with an extraordinary wealth of things to do, but regardless of your travel interests, you're going to want to spend time at one of the country's great beaches. The lion's share of beach tourism is concentrated on the Pacific side, in the Central Pacific region near San José, the Nicoya Peninsula, and in the dry tropical forests of Guanacaste. Less touristed, but no less beautiful are the beaches in the tropical rainforest of the southern Pacific coast near Corcovado National Park, or on the exotic, rastafarian, eco-tourism paradise of the Caribbean side.
While some of the best beach vacations will be found on tiny quiet beaches off the beaten path, or even at exclusive resorts, here's a quick list of the country's biggest and most popular beach destinations:
Corcovado — the main beach on Costa Rica's Osa Peninsula, with black sand beaches fronted by the thick Costa Rican tropical rainforest
Dominical — probably the biggest surfing destination in the country, with a good nightlife scene
Jacó — the party beach city right by San José, a surfer's paradise full of nightlife and casinos
Montezuma — the bohemian option, on the Nicoya Peninsula, full of dreadlocks, surfers, and what you would expect would come along with them (known as "monte fuma" by the locals)
Playa Grande — this tranquil white sand beach is home to the largest nesting site for the leatherback sea turtle on the Pacific coast, as well as, one of the best surfing waves in the Guanacaste Province
Tamarindo — the upscale option, with beautiful beaches complemented by boutique shopping and high class dining
Tortuguero — the Caribbean side's most famous beach, which caters to eco-tourists looking to explore the rainforest and spot some manatees
Costa Rica is one of the countries, with more rivers per square kilometer, in the world. Anywhere you go you will find some kind of float trip to enjoy nature from a very unique point of view.
For many years, the rafting Mecca of Costa Rica was Turrialba, a large town embedded in the mountains near the Reventazon and Pacuare Rivers, on the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica. Second in popularity was always the Sarapiqui River shed which pushed the opening of rafting companies near the Arenal Volcano. Then, rivers such as the Penas Blancas (now dammed) and Toro started delighting rafting enthusiasts in the northern slopes of the country.
Nowadays there are a wide variety of exciting river trips offered in Costa Rica. On the Pacific slope is the largest volume river, El General. This river is famous for multi-day adventures and for being an incredible playground for kayakers. As part of this watershed is the Coto Brus River. Further north, in the central pacific coast, are the Savegre and Naranjo Rivers. In this area you have the opportunity to enjoy both half day trips on the Naranjo River and 1-2 day trips on the Savegre River. Near Canas, Guanacaste there is the Corobici River widely known for being an excellent nature float trip and the Tenorio River, which started running commercially soon after the new millennium.
As for recommendations, the quintessential Pacuare River (Class III-IV) is on the top of the list and even better if you have time for a 2 or 3 day adventure. If you are interested in similar trips, the Savegre River (Class III-IV) is an excellent alternative for an overnight.
If you want more adrenalin, the Chorro Section (Class IV+) of the Naranjo River, near Manuel Antonio, Quepos is the most exhilarating rafting trip of the country. This section is run from December to May.
As for nature oriented trips, the Penas Blancas river would be the perfect example of the biodiversity of the country. Most likely, any of these rafting trips will be the highlight of your active vacations, don’t miss your chance to paddle one.
Costa Rica has some of the best Sport Fishing in the world and is the first country to practice catch and release fishing. The Pacific side has incredible fishing for Sailfish, Marlin, Dorado, Tuna, Wahoo, Roosterfish, Snapper, and more. The Caribbean side and Northern regions of Costa Rica are famous for big Tarpon and big Snook. Over sixty-four world records have been caught in Costa Rica. Half day, Full day and Multi-Day Trips are available.
Costa Rica has many surfing hotspots. The best time of year to surf is from November - August.
The Pacific coast, particularly in the Central Pacific and Guanacaste, has some of the best surfing in Central America.
In the Guanacaste there are several beaches to choose from if you intend to go surfing. Among them, Playa Negra and Playa Grande are two stand out breaks. Playa Negra breaks over a shallow lava reef producing fast hollow waves for advanced surfers only. Playa Grande is the most consistent break in the area with surfable conditions most days of the year. It breaks over a sandy bottom and is good for beginner and experienced surfers.
Tamarindo is a good beach to learn how to surf, whilst Playa del Coco offers advanced surfers the chance to surf at Witches Rock and Ollie´s Point. On the Caribbean side there are beautiful beaches, but limited surfing prospects.
The southern Costa Rica area has two very good spots for surf: Dominical and Pavones Beach. Pavones Beach has thick, heavy waves which consistently barrel and can get really big. It's little known, but picturesque and untamed; Definitely not for the light hearted.
Costa Rica has great mountain biking routes, particularly near Irazu, Turrialba and Arenal Volcanoes. There is popular dirt road that connects Irazu Volcano and the foothills of Turrialba Volcano that is perfect for mountain biking, as it traverses the mountain and presents great views of the Cartago Valley (weather permitting, of course).
The area around Lake Arenal is also a great spot to bike. You can circle the lake in one long day, or break up the ride in two sleeping in Tilarán or Nuevo Arenal. The use of mountain bikes is a must, since the southern shore of the lake is unpaved.
The Nicoya Peninsula also has great riding, particularly the stretch between Sámara, Puerto Coyote and Malpais. There is a coastal road that connects these three beachtowns.
Costa Rica is also know as a haven for some of the most lush, tropical golfing environments in the world. At any course, you can expect to an ensemble of exotic, indigenous animals; jungle; mountainous terrain; and a surreal, blue ocean painting a brilliant, seclusive experience. Courses include Reserva Conchal, Four Seasons, Hacienda Pinilla, Papagayo Golf in Guanacaste; Los Delfines and Marriott Los Sueños in mid Pacific Coast and Valle del Sol, Cariari, Los Reyes and Monteran in San Jose.
Wind surfing in the Tilarán area is some of the best in the world.
Costa Rican cuisine can be described as simple but wholesome. The spiciness often associated with Latin America has typically originated in Mexico, most Costa Rican foods are not spicy, but, as they simmer in a large pot, the flavors are blended.
Gallo pinto is a mixture of rice and beans with a little cilantro or onion thrown in. While more common at breakfast, it can also be served at lunch or dinner.
Casado, which means married, is the typical lunch in Costa Rica, containing rice and beans with meat, chicken or fish, always served with salad and fried plantain.
Plato del dia, is the 'Plate of the Day' and is often a Casado, but has the meat or fish selection of the day. Usually around 5.00 USD and includes a natural juice.
Good, fresh fruit is abundant in variety and low in cost. Mercados provide an excellent place to sample fruit and other Costa Rican fare, with many including sit-down snack bars. You are encouraged to experiment because some of the local fruits do not "travel well" as they are bruised easily and or have a short shelf life. The mango found in store in North America are much more fibrous and less sweet than the mangos found in Costa Rica. The fingerling bananas are much more creamy and less tart than the ones found in North America.
Be sure to stop off at a restroom along any of the roads: a casado and beer will cost ~$3.
Don't forget to try the Salsa Lizano that you will surely find at any restaurant. It is a mild vegetable sauce that has a hint of curry and is slightly sweet. It's often referred to as Costa Rican ketchup. It tastes good on just about anything! Bring some home with you! You can find smaller sized bottles at any market.
Also as per usual in Central America standard breakfast fare is a ham sandwich, so people averse to eating pork might be advised to check out a grocery market for something else. Many Ticos will go to a local bakery and buy a loaf of white bread.
Vegetarians will find it surprisingly easy to eat well in Costa Rica.
Don't forget to tip tour guides, drivers, bellboys and maids. Restaurant bills include a 10% gratuity but leave an extra tip for good service. Americans often get better service because they are used to tipping separately, but it's not necessary.
The beef cattle are raised on grass; the meat will taste differently from corn fed cattle. The cuts of meat at the local restaurants are also different. Chicken tastes like chicken.
Most places have potable water, so don't worry about drinking tap water. Bottled water is also available at low prices.
Refrescos are beverages made from fresh fruit (cas, guanabana, sandia/watermelon, mora/blackberry, fresa/strawberry, granadilla/passion fruit), sugar and either water or milk. All sodas (mom and pop diners) serve these. You can also easily buy the standard international soda pops. 'Fresca', 'Canada Dry' and the local 'Fanta Kolita' (fruit punch) are recommended.
The national drink is called guaro, which is made from fermented sugar cane. It is similar to vodka, and is usually drunk with water and lemon. Note that it's not a very "clean" liquor, so exercise caution.
There are approximately 8 different national beers available (and most international), which are sold in cans, bottles and even kegs. The most common beers in the country are Pilsen and Imperial: all bars and restaurants serve both. Bavaria, "Bavaria Negra" (dark) and Bavaria Light are considered higher quality but more expensive, Rock Ice and Rock Ice Limón (lemon flavor) has a higher alcohol percentage and is less common in rural areas. Heineken is locally made under license and is more expensive as well.
Ready-to-drink coffee is excellent and considered (again) to be among the best in the world.
You can find many places to stay all over Costa Rica, including hotels, aparthotels, condos, vacation rentals, and cabinas. Vacation Homes, Cabinas, and Condos can be less expensive than hotels and provide more flexibility in your adventure to Costa Rica. Free accommodation (or hospitality exchange) networks such as the "" or "" are also becoming increasingly popular. They offer a great way to save money by not paying for accommodation but getting to know the local culture through the locals' eyes.
The local currency is Colón(es) named after Columbus (Spanish: Colón). The rate of change is about 592 Colones for 1 US Dollar (April 2009 in state Banks). Money exchange is provided at most banks, however it is recommended to do so at the state banks, especially the Banco Nacional, since they have lower rates. Scotia Bank offered rates of 580 (buying), 590 (selling) on 2 Nov 2009. There is also a money exchange service at the airport, but it is outrageously expensive. But note that the use of US Dollars is quite common; in the tourist setting, almost everything is priced in Dollars (but sometimes prices are cheaper in colones). Note that when a price is quoted in "dollars", the speaker may be thinking of a dollar as 500 Colones; so it is always worth checking whether this is what is meant.
You can find ATMs in most places. They normally dispense US Dollars and Colones. With VISA you get money at almost all ATMs. If you've got a MasterCard try the ATM´s in the AM/PM supermarkets, they give you up to 250,000 Colones (~500 US$). Another option are the ATH-ATM´s but they just give you up to 100,000 Colones (~200 US$) each transaction.
You might get a discount (usually between 5% and 10%) when paying in cash.
Traveler's checks are rarely used. When paying with Traveler's checks, unless for hotel nights, change them first at a bank. Expect long delays with Traveler's checks at the bank, lots of stamping, the higher up the official at the bank the more stamps they have. Dollars are easier.
The most common souvenirs are made from wood. Unless it's marked as responsible (plantation grown wood), it is most likely not and may be contributing to the deforestation of Costa Rica — or even Nicaragua or Panama!
Most visitors returning home are not allowed to bring back any raw foods or plants. Accordingly, the single most desirable commodity for visitors to take home may be roasted (not green) coffee...considered by many as some of the world's best. Numerous web sites explain the fine qualities of various growing regions, types of beans, types of roasting and sources for purchase. Best prices come by purchasing several (sealed) bags of 12 ounces or so. The stores in San Jose airport will sell you excellent coffee, but other good quality blends can be found in local supermarkets and direct from the roasters. It can be an expensive but delicious habit. If you're serious about your coffee, bring at least a partially-empty suit case and fill it with perhaps a year's supply (web sites explain how to store it that long). Take care with tourist outlets where small quantities may cost as much as ordering on the Internet.
Spanish is the main language in Costa Rica. All major newspapers and official business are conducted in Spanish. English is used widely in areas populated by international tourists, and information for tourists is often bilingual or exclusively in English. A number of businesses operated by European proprietors can accommodate guests in Spanish, English and their native languages.
Some Costa Rican expressions:
Ma'e, used akin to the English word "dude", although literally meaning something more like "idiot". Generally spoken among friends. It's pronounced 'my'.
Pura vida, literally translated as "pure life," is an expression endemic to Costa Rica. It can be used in several contexts, as an expression of enthusiasm, agreement, or salutation. It's pronounced 'poora veeda'.
Pulpería, a general store.
Tuanis, means "OK" or "cool." Taken from English phrase "too nice".
A prevalent version of slang in Costa Rica, and other regions of Latin America, is called "pachuco" or "pachuquismo," and is used by across social classes and understood as a "friendly" way of speaking.
The "tu" form is not commonly used in Costa Rica (or in Central America generally), yet they understand it and have no problem using it with gringos or others who may have learned it. Some people use the alternate informal "vos" but others consider it impolite and simply always use the "usted" form even with close friends. "Vosotros" is practically nonexistent.
As well as Costa Rican Spanish, there is also an English-based creole language spoken in Limón Province (Puerto Limón) on the Caribbean Sea coast of Costa Rica. It is called Limónese Creole (also called Limón Creole English or Mekatelyu) Limón Coastal Creole is similar to varieties such as Colón Creole, Mískito Coastal Creole, Belizean Kriol language, and San Andrés and Providencia Creole. The name Mekatelyu is a transliteration of the phrase "make I tell you", or in standard English "let me tell you".
Costa Rica has one of the highest levels of social care in the world. Its doctors are known worldwide as some of the best. Many people from U.S, Canada and Europe go there to be treated, not only because the quality of the service but for the cost. First class Hospitals can be found in the capital. There is a public/private hospital system. There is excellent care in each. The public system has much longer waits, while the private system has shorter waits. If you are unfortunate enough to have a very sick child requiring hospitalization, the child will be transferred to the only children's hospital in CR, located in the capital. This children's hospital is public.
There have been outbreaks of dengue fever in some areas of the country and an outbreak of malaria was reported in November 2006 from the province of Limon but just a few cases. Protection against mosquito bites is very important, wearing lightweight long pants, long sleeved shirts and using insect repellents with high concentrations of DEET is recommended by the CDC. If you are going to be in very rural areas known to be malaria-infested areas, you might want to consider an anti-malarial med. However, most travelers to Costa Rica do just fine with updated childhood immunizations and taking preventative measures against mosquito bites (rather than take anti-malarial medication).
With 1.9 million travelers visiting Costa Rica annually, more than any Latin American country, travel is quite popular and common. Still, travelers to Costa Rica should exercise caution. The emergency number in Costa Rica is 911.
Traffic in Costa Rica is dangerous, so be careful. Pedestrians in general do not have the right of way. Roads in rural areas may also tend to have many potholes. Driving at night is not recommended.
Robbery at knife point is not altogether uncommon. There is no army and the police have been known to be corrupt.
Buses - especially those destined for San Jose - are frequent locations for robbery. Any bus rider who falls asleep has a good chance of waking up and finding his baggage missing. Don't trust anyone on the buses to watch your things, especially near San Jose.
Like any other tourist destination, watch out for pickpockets.
Purse snatchings, armed robberies and car-jackings have been on the rise lately. Stay alert and protect your valuables at all times, especially in the San Jose area.
"Smash and grabs" of car windows are very common all over the country so do not leave valuables in your vehicle.
Another common robbery scheme includes slashing your tires, then when you stop to fix the flat, one or two "friendly" people stop to help and instead grab what valuables they can.
If you are motioned to pull over by anyone, do not do so until you are at a well-lit and safe place.
Make use of hostel or hotel lock boxes if they are really secure – this is great when you want to swim or kick back and really not worry.
Do have a few beers and enjoy yourself, but never drink so much that you won't be alert and aware of what's going on.
On a long trip, it's advised that you make back-up CDs (or DVDs) of your digital photos and send a copy back home. In the event that you are robbed, you will thank yourself!
When encountering a new currency, learn the exchange rate from a reliable source (online ahead of time or a local bank, preferably) and create a little cheat sheet converting it to US dollars or the other Central American currency you are comfortable with. Travel with small denominations of US dollars (crisp 1s, 5s, 10s) as back-up... usually you'll be able to use them if you run out of local currency.
Go to a bank to change money when possible and practical. If you find yourself needing to use the services of a person who is a money changer (Sunday morning at the border, for instance) make sure to have your own calculator. Do not trust money changers and their doctored calculators, change the least amount of money possible and take a hard look at the bills – there's lots of false ones out there. Always insist that your change be in small bills – you'll lose more at one time if a large bill is false, plus large bills are hard to change (even the equivalent of $20 USD in Costa Rica or $5 USD in Nicaragua can be difficult in some small towns, believe it or not!)
Traveling alone is fine and generally safe in Costa Rica, but carefully consider what kind of risks (if any) you are willing to take. Always hike with other people and try to explore a new city with other people. On solo forays, if you feel uncomfortable seek out a group of other people (both women and men). A well lighted place with people you can trust is always a plus. A busy restaurant or hostel is a great source of local info as well as a great place to relax and recharge.
Marijuana traffic, distribution and commerce is illegal in Costa Rica. There is absence of law when you carry marijuana for personal use quantities only (up to 3 joints) and police could try to get money from you or keep you in the local comisary for up to 12 hours. The US DEA is also present in Costa Rica and has been known to pretend to be a tourist. There is a Costa Rican equivalent of the DEA as well. It is not advised to do illegal drugs in Costa Rica. It is also not advised to bribe a police officer. Do so at your own risk.
Prostitution is legal in Costa Rica and can be a destination for those looking for more than sun and surf on their vacation. Unfortunately, some of the sex tourists coming to Costa Rica sexually abuse children who are held hostage in the sex tourism industry. Prostitution with minors (less than 18 years old) is considered a crime in Costa Rica. The majority of sex tourists in Costa Rica are from the United States, and are prosecutable by the Protect Act of 2003. This act gives the US government the power to prosecute US citizens who travel abroad to engage in sex tourism with children under the age of 18. Several other countries including France, Canada, the UK, Netherlands, and Australia have similar laws. Arrests, warrants and prosecutions are being made under these laws.
Below is a list of suggestions for traveling by bus in Costa Rica and neighboring countries. These are overcautious tips, but the bottom line is that they can help prevent being ripped off. Nearly all thefts on the bus are preventable thefts!
Travel with someone else when possible. A trusted friend is best, of course - not just someone you met last night at the hostel, but he or she will do in a pinch. (Trust your gut feeling with new friends – most are great, but some may be con artists!) Traveling with a friend makes the journey more entertaining and more fun... you can talk and share travel stories and each of you can take turns sleeping on long bus rides. Also, there is the fact that "two heads are better than one" and it's always good to be able to brainstorm if you aren't sure what the answer to your travel question or concern is.
Make sure to wear a money belt with your passport, cash, credit/debit cards and ticket (bus or plane). Even if all your other belongings are stolen, you would still be able to get to your next destination. The waist belts are best; a neck pouch can be lifted while you are asleep. A thief would really have to disturb you and your personal space to get a waist belt.
On any bus ride (1st, 2nd, 3rd class, whatever!) try to sit above the luggage compartment so that you can watch that your bag doesn't "walk away" when others get off the bus. Costa Rican buses usually have one compartment for those heading to the main destination, and a separate one for people getting off along the way to avoid problems. Be aware if the "destination" compartment is opened en route!
Try not to fall asleep or take turns with a travel partner (when you are lucky enough to have one.) Best way to snooze alone is with your bag on your lap and your hands crossed over it. Don't leave valuables in outside compartments.
Make conversation with locals on the bus so that they can see that you are competent in Spanish and comfortable in the Spanish speaking environment. (You'll enjoy yourself plus this may make them feel friendly towards you and more willing to alert you if someone is snooping in your stuff. Or it might warn them that if they steal from you, you will talk to the bus driver and police and make a full report.) Even some Spanish is better than none – use what you have! It's great practice and the more you improve the safer you'll be!
Don't bring anything that you are not willing to lose. Keep your day pack attached to you at all times when traveling – the straps get wrapped around your leg and the bag squeezed between your knees or feet. You don't want to lose your travel notes, camera, etc.
NEVER EVER leave anything in the overhead bins. Almost 100% of all thefts on buses are from the overhead bins. Keep it on your lap!!!
The coasts of Costa Rica are known for strong currents and rip-tides in some areas but most of them are great to be with the family. Costa Rica has some of the best beaches in the world. Atlantic coast is just five hours away from the Pacific one and both offer different views and landscapes. There are no signs indicating an unsafe beach due to riptides, so take precautions and listen to the locals on where it is safe to swim. The public beaches do not have life guards. A traveler should learn how to swim out of a rip tide and not swim alone. There are some active volcanoes in Costa Rica and they are dangerous, so follow the warning signs posted. The slopes of the Arenal volcano invite visitors to climb closer to the summit, but there have been fatalities in the past with unseen gas chambers. Also be wary of the climate of Costa Rica. It is very hot in the daytime, but in the morning and evening it becomes very cool, so you should bring a light weight jacket.
Crocodiles are quite common in certain parts of Costa Rica and, although not as dangerous as the Nile or Saltwater species, are still considered occasional man-eaters and can grow to lengths of up to 20 feet. Great care should be taken when swimming or snorkeling, especially near areas where fishing is common or near river mouths. When you go to the Guanacaste beaches on the Pacific you can see some crocodiles over the Terraba river.
While large, the beautiful Jaguar is extremely rare and even most locals have never seen the very large predatory cat. They appear to be very shy and elusive; there is very little risk of attack.
Bull sharks share much of the same territory as the crocodiles and probably account for more shark related attacks in the world than any other species.
Dogs are trained to be protective of property and people (perro bravo) and there are also many strays. Dog bites are not uncommon. Do not approach an unknown dog.
Costa Rica is widely known as the most tolerant of Latin American countries for gay and lesbian travelers but caution should still be exercised. More and more Costa Ricans are getting out of the closet. There is a thriving gay scene in San Jose with many gay and lesbian options for nightlife (La Avispa, Club Oh!, Bochinche among others). The Manuel Antonio, Jaco, and Quepos area is also a favorite spot with several gay hotels and a gay bar.
There are a good number of Gay/lesbian or Gay-Friendly accommodations in Costa Rica. Accommodations seem to be of the higher quality offering a variety of services and of course, discretion. Many hotels, travel agencies, and resorts are run by gays and/or are gay-friendly.
According to the Costa Rica Tourism Board, about 200 medical procedures are performed every month at the nation's hospitals for medical tourists. Among the procedures done are cosmetic surgery, knee and hip replacement, cataract removal and other eye treatments, weight loss surgery and dental care. Health care in Costa Rica is attractive for international patients because of the low prices, high care standards, and access to tourist attractions. For example, a hip replacement costs around US$12,000 and a tummy tuck costs around US$4,400.
You can learn Spanish in Costa Rica. Reflecting the higher living standard, it's a little more expensive than other countries such as Guatemala, but then again, the education level of your teachers will be much higher.
Costa Rica is a great place to learn Spanish as the "ticos" have a dialect that is easy to understand and digest for someone just starting to learn the language. There are many language schools that provide intensive instruction with group classes lasting 4 hours per day, Monday to Friday. Almost all Spanish schools will also offer host family accommodations and possibly some alternative such as a student residence or discounted hotel rates.
The key factor when going to study Spanish in Costa Rica is to decide what is the right location for you. The beach locations tend to be on the touristy side so they do not necessarily give the greatest immersion experience, however there are many Spanish schools near the beach as students like to split their time between studying Spanish in the classroom combined with activities on the beach or just relaxing on their time away from work. There is a growing trend of these Spanish schools at the beach also offering Surfing or Photography classes due to the environment around the school and the proximity to good surf.
Studying in the San Jose area has many benefits. There is the luxury aspect of city life since it tends to be much more modern than the rustic beach locations. Host families and Spanish schools tend to have nicer facilities. San Jose also has fewer tourists so it is great from an immersion point of view as you can practice your Spanish in a setting where people are not automatically switching to English to accommodate your native language. It is much better that you struggle with your Spanish and force your brain to think in a different language so your communication becomes much smoother.
Some hostels offer packages that include Spanish lessons and daily home-stays with the locals (in addition to your room and board).
Costa Rica is also a good place to become proficient in ocean sports like surfing and scuba diving. There are numerous surf shops, that provide surfing lessons and surf camps throughout the coastal areas.
The local newspaper, La Nación, has an extensive jobs listing every Sunday and Monday. You must be a resident or be sponsored by a company to work legally in Costa Rica.
The print and online versions of the Tico Times, the Yahoo! group "Costa Rica Living" and the online newspaper AM Costa Rica are other great resources for people considering long term stays in Costa Rica. There's also a book called Living Abroad in Costa Rica by Erin Van Rheenan that would be very helpful.
Costa Rica is an open business country and investors are always welcome, so if you or your company is interested in founding a new or buying a business in Costa Rica, it is best to contact a Costa Rican lawyer about your interest in investing.
There are several opportunities to engage in volunteer work in Costa Rica. Volunteer projects range from turtle conservation, building houses, teaching English and community development work.
Affordable organizations such as ISV Costa Rica , Travel to Teach , International Cultural Youth Exchange and Volunteer Visions are able to arrange work for international volunteers in Costa Rica and other countries in the region. Other volunteer programs can be found at Tico Times Science and Environment
The international calling code/country code for Costa Rica is 506.
A postage stamp to Europe is 125 Colones (around 21 US cents).
The primary means of outside contact are through email and public pay telephones.
Internet cafes are fairly easy to find in tourist areas, with prices all over the place. Some of these offer long distance calls over the internet.
Public phones are accessed with calling cards (tarjetas telefonicas) which can be purchased at most shops, even in outlying areas.
There are four different types of pay-phones:
Coin phones. Note that these only accept the older silver-colored coins.
Chip phones. These phones allow you to insert a chip-type calling card into them and make your calls.
Colibri phones. These phones have a small swipe bar for a scratch off type calling card referred to as a Colibri calling card which are available from 500 colones and up. The swipes often don't work--you always have to enter the calling card access code on the keypad. Despite this, the Colibri calling card is the recommended one to buy as you can use it any of the types of phones whereas with a chip card you must search for a chip phone.
Multipago (multi-pay) phones. These phones accept coins, chip cards and colibri cards. Most public phones around the country have been changed for this type of phones. They also allow you to send SMS messages and emails as well.
Both types of calling cards are typically available in pharmacies and other locations where you see the sticker on the door.
Domestic calls are quite cheap and the price is the same wherever you call. Calls to cellular phones are charged significantly more though.
International calls are fairly expensive. The cheapest way to make them is over the internet using a service such as Skype at an Internet café. But making short calls using the domestic calling cards (you can make international calls using these but the denominations of the calling cards are quite small so your call with be short!) or the international calling cards available within Costa Rica (all from the government phone monopoly ICE) is the next best deal. Certainly better than credit card calls or using a US calling card generally.
Mobile phone service in Costa Rica is provided by Grupo I.C.E. using GSM technology at 1800 MHz. Roaming is possible with a GSM handset but can be expensive. Several US companies including Intouch Smartcards offer discount global roaming SIMs for Costa Rica that can provide service in Costa Rica at reasonable rates. Note that the GSM phone systems in the United States and Canada use different frequencies and that travelers from there will need a "world" handset. You should check with your provider beforehand. Prepaid Sim cards are now starting to be available in Costa Rica.
All reports indicate that most of the country has very good GSM coverage (including most of the capital), and that TDMA coverage is much better. Non-residents may rent cell phone service, and of course anyone can buy a cell phone, but you must be a documented resident of the country to own your own cell phone number, and even then you will only get one if there are numbers available. There usually are not. Prior to establishing residence a corporation can be formed and the corporation can receive a number. The fee for establishing a corporation should be no more than 300 dollars. Grupo ICE is a government-sanctioned monopoly, and they prefer not to overextend their resources.
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|Population||4,075,261 (July 2006 est.)|
|Religion||Roman Catholic 76.3%, Evangelical 13.7%, other Protestant 0.7%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.3%, other 4.8%, none 3.2%|