Valle de Cocora
photo by C. Johnston

Colombia is the only country in South America with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Lying to the south of Panama, Colombia controls the land access between Central and South America. With Panama to the north, Colombia is surrounded by Venezuela to the east, Brazil to the southeast, and Ecuador and Peru to the south west. The country was named in honor of Christopher Columbus, following the Italian version of his name (Cristoforo Colombo). Although Columbus never actually set foot on the current Colombian territory, in his fourth voyage he visited Panama, which was part of Colombia until 1903.


Although there is a certain amount of violence in remote areas, the current government has increased its presence in the countryside and in all major tourist areas, so whereas in the past travel was certainly dangerous, the risks are now lower except in the areas of known guerilla, paramilitary or drug cartel presence.

Traveling in Colombia is definitely worthwhile. From Bogota, with a temperate climate 2,600 m (8530 ft) above sea level and at a constant temperature of 19 degrees Celsius, a drive of one or two hours North, South, East or West can take you to landscapes which are as diverse as they are beautiful. To the East are the oriental plains which stretch out far beyond the horizon with little modulation. To the North are the more rugged contours of the higher Andean region. To the South the weather is sub-tropical and has flora and fauna concomitant with this, and to the West you can find the Magdalena River valley and its hot weather.


The climate is tropical along the coast and eastern plains; cold in the highlands; periodic droughts. Colombia is an equatorial country, so there are no seasons, what Colombians normally refer to as winter is the rainy season. Cities such as Bogotá, Tunja, and Pasto have been known to reach temperatures below 0 degrees Celsius, so if you are sensitive to cold weather be prepared. Cities along the Atlantic coast (Cartagena, Barranquilla, Santa Marta) are hot and humid, while some cities at mid-altitude in the Andes (Medellín, Pereira) have 'everlasting spring' weather.


Flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains

Natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes. Recent volcanic disaster occurred in Armero, 1985. 25,000 people were buried by lahars that the Nevado del Ruiz produced.

Highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m (18950 ft) of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. The mountain is the world's highest coastal range. note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar has the same elevation


Colombia became independent from Spain in 1810. It was one of the five countries liberated by Simon Bolivar (the others being Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru and Bolivia). Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama then formed the first Republic of Colombia. Ecuador and Venezuela declared their independence from Colombia in 1830. Panama declared its independence from Colombia in 1903 with the support of the United States of America. A 40-year communist insurgent campaign to overthrow the Colombian Government escalated during the 1990s, under girded in part by funds from the drug trade. Although the violence is deadly and large swaths of the rural countryside are under guerrilla influence, the movement lacks the military strength or popular support necessary to overthrow the government. Illegal anti-insurgent paramilitary groups have grown to be several thousand strong in recent years, challenging the insurgents for control of territory and illicit industries such as the drug trade and also the government's ability to exert its dominion over rural areas. While Bogotá continues to try to negotiate a settlement, neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their borders.


Colombia became independent from Spain in 1810. It was one of the five countries liberated by Simon Bolivar (the others being Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru and Bolivia). Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama then formed the first Republic of Colombia. Ecuador and Venezuela declared their independence from Colombia in 1830. Panama declared its independence from Colombia in 1903 with the support of the United States of America. A 40-year communist insurgent campaign to overthrow the Colombian Government escalated during the 1990s, under girded in part by funds from the drug trade. Although the violence is deadly and large swaths of the rural countryside are under guerrilla influence, the movement lacks the military strength or popular support necessary to overthrow the government. Illegal anti-insurgent paramilitary groups have grown to be several thousand strong in recent years, challenging the insurgents for control of territory and illicit industries such as the drug trade and also the government's ability to exert its dominion over rural areas. While Bogotá continues to try to negotiate a settlement, neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their borders.


The climate is tropical along the coast and eastern plains; cold in the highlands; periodic droughts. Colombia is an equatorial country, so there are no seasons, what Colombians normally refer to as winter is the rainy season. Cities such as Bogotá, Tunja, and Pasto have been known to reach temperatures below 0 degrees Celsius, so if you are sensitive to cold weather be prepared. Cities along the Atlantic coast (Cartagena, Barranquilla, Santa Marta) are hot and humid, while some cities at mid-altitude in the Andes (Medellín, Pereira) have 'everlasting spring' weather.


  • Andino -
  • Costa Norte -
  • Orinoquía -
  • Pacifica -
  • Amazonia -
  • Colombian Islands -


  • Bogotá - The Republic's Capital, a city where all the country converges. Bogotá hosts various internationally acclaimed events such as the Iberoamerican Theatre Festival (largest one on Earth) and "Rock al Parque", a concert featuring rock stars from around the globe. The city also offers a great variety of restaurants and museums, such as the Andrés Carne de Res.

  • Barranquilla - Colombia's Golden Port and capital of the Atlántico department. Barranquilla holds its world famous Carnival each February.

  • Cali - Colombia's third largest city and a center for sugar and coffee industry. It enjoys terrific nightlife in the salsotecas.

  • Cartagena - The Heroic City, Capital of the Bolívar department is Colombia's tourist city par excellence. The colonial architecture and the skyscrapers can be be seen together in this city that offers a unique experience of festivals, restaurants and hotels.

  • Cúcuta - This is the sixth largest city of Colombia. It has many interesting places and is one of the most ecological cities of Latin America.

  • Medellín - The City of Eternal Spring and capital of the Antioquia department is famous for having a large textile industry, which produces top quality clothing that is sent all over the world. It's also the birthplace of master painter Fernando Botero, therefore it houses the great majority of his works.

  • Pereira - The lovely City , capital of the Risaralda department and major city of the coffee region, important and modern city, commercial and touristic. The famous "Bolivar naked" and Matecana Zoo. Very near to Santa Rosa hot water springs and the National Park of "Los Nevados".

  • Popayan - This beautiful, white-washed city is Colombia's religious center. Home to the second largest Easter festival in the world (after Seville, Spain), this town has contributed more Colombian presidents than any other. Bordered by the Purace National Park and gateway to the archeological sites of San Agustin and Tierra Dentro in nearby Huilla.

  • Santa Marta - One of the most touristic cities in Colombia. Santa Marta is unique in the sense that it offers you beautiful beaches one day, and the next one a walk to the foothill of a snowy mountain, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, the highest in the country. It's also the place where Liberator General Simón Bolívar died, at La Quinta de San Pedro Alejandrino.

  • Leticia - Capital of the Amazonas department, this is the place to experience the Colombian Amazon in its full.

Other destinations

  • Amacayacu National Park - Far, far from civilization in the Amazon rainforest, a huge national park explorable via boat, full of strange monkey-infested islands and pink dolphins.

  • Ciudad Perdida - A pre-Colombian city located in the Colombian jungle close to Santa Marta. Built between the eighth and the fourteenth century by the Tayrona Indians. Nowadays only stone circular shaped terraces covered by jungle remain.

  • Cocuy National Park - Trek between high altitude lagunas and snow covered peaks.

  • Corales del Rosario - Beautiful beaches above the water, beautiful corals beneath in one of Colombia's most popular national parks.

  • Isla Gorgona - This former prison island in the Pacific Ocean is now a nature reserve open for visitors. There is abundant wildlife like monkeys, snakes, whales and sea turtles. It offers excellent diving conditions.

  • Los Nevados National Park - Colombia's high altitude volcano park offers great trekking.

  • San Agustín and Tierradentro - Archeological sites in south-western Colombia.

  • San Gil - Colombia's adventure sport capital. Enjoy world class rafting and the proximity of the Chicamocha canyon.

  • Tayrona National Park - Some of the loveliest coastline in all of South America, as well as great snorkeling.

There are many groups and agencies offering eco-tourism and it is very usual to find trekking plans (locally named 'caminatas' or 'excursiones') on weekend; many groups (named 'caminantes') offers cheaper one day excursion, special trips (on long weekends or during periods of vacation time (January, Holy Week, July, August, October, December) to different places in the country.

Some recommended groups in Bogotá are: Viajar y Vivir, Fundación Sal Si Puedes, Caminantes del Retorno; there are many other. Patianchos in Medellín; Rastros in Bucaramanga. They usually offer guidance and transportation to the place; on long trips include lodging and other services. The recommendation is asking if the guide has the official certification.

Getting there

By plane

There are regular international flights into major cities including Bogotá, Medellín, Cali, Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Cartagena, Pereira and San Andres Islands as well as to other smaller cities in the borders with Venezuela, Ecuador, Panamá and Brazil.

There are daily direct flights to and from the U.S, Canada, Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Spain, France, and South America.

Beware that Medellín is the only Colombian city served by 2 airports: International and long-range domestic flights go to José María Córdova International Airport (IATA : MDE) while regional and some other domestic flights arrive in Olaya Herrera airport (IATA : EOH) .

Bogota has two airport terminals: Puente Aero and El Dorado. Outside the airport, be aware of enterprising men who will help you lift your bags into a taxi or car, and then expect payment. It is best to politely refuse all offers of help unless from a taxi driver you are about to hire.

Taxis are regulated, reasonably priced and safe from the airports. A taxi ride from the airport to the central business district in Bogota, takes approximately 20 minutes.

By car

  • Enter from Venezuela by the San Cristobal-Cúcuta or Maracaibo-Maicao pass.

  • Enter from Ecuador by the Tulcan-Ipiales (Rumichaca) pass.

By boat

Enter from Panama by the Puerto Obaldia-Capurganá pass. From Capurganá, another boat ride takes you to Turbo, where buses take you to Medellín and Montería.

By bus

From Venezuela

Connections can be made from the Caracas main terminal to most cities in Colombia. From the main terminal, Maracaibo (Venezuela) you can find buses that run to the cities (Cartagena, Baranquilla, Santa Marta) on the coast. The border at Maicao provides a relatively easy, straightforward entry into Colombia from Venezuela.

You can also enter from Venezuela via the busy San Cristóbal to Cúcuta route, which passes through the border town of San Antonio del Táchira.

From Ecuador

It is very straightforward to enter Colombia from Ecuador. Travel to Tulcan, where you can get a taxi to the border. Get your exit stamps from the immigration offices and take another taxi to Ipiales. From there you can travel further to Cali, Bogotá, ...

From Panama?

You can't cross from Panama to Colombia by bus--the Darien Gap begins at Yaviza, where the Interamericana runs out. Consider using the boat crossing instead.


Most Western countries don't need a visa. American citizens do not need a visa unless they are staying for more than 90 days. Colombian authorities will give American citizens an on-arrival visa free of charge, which is printed onto your passport and lets the person stay for a maximum of 60 to 90 days. It's very hard to get 90 days tourist visa on arrival. Immigration officers will ask you to show all the tickets of your route for it. Irish citizens do not need to apply for a visa at a Colombian embassy anymore, and should have the same treatment at entrance as any other traveler from other parts of the world.

Visa Extension

You can apply for a one-month visa extension at a DAS-office in most cities, which costs around $32.00 USD You need two copies of your passport's main page, two copies of the page with the entrance stamp, two copies of a ticket en route out of the country, and four photographs. The procedure takes some time and includes taking your fingerprints. The maximum length of stay can not exceed 6 months in 1 year with a tourist visa.

Traveling around

By plane

The most important domestic carriers in Colombia are : Avianca (including SAM) , Aero Republica , Satena , Aires and EasyFly . They all have well-kept fleets and regular service to major towns and cities in Colombia. The major Colombian airports have been certified as "Highly Safe" by international organizations. Please be aware that the online payment process of some domestic airlines is complicated. Aero Republica accepts only local debit cards (you need a colombian bank account and Easyfly does not accept international credit cards. Payments can be done at the airport or official ticket offices.

By train

There is limited train service in Colombia. There is metro service in Medellin and its surroundings.

By car

Driving is on the right hand side of the road-most cars have standard transmissions. Colombia's fleet is composed mainly of cars with 4-Cylinder engines that are of European and Japanese manufacture. Foreign visitors may drive if they show an international driver's license (a multilingual endorsement card issued by automobile and driver's clubs around the world).

Insurance is cheap and mandatory.

The speed limit in residential areas is 30 km/h (19 mph), and in urban areas it is 60 km/h (37 mph). There is a national speed limit of 80 km/h (50 mph).

The country has a well-maintained network of roads that connect all major cities in the Andean areas, as well as the ones in the Caribbean Coast. There may be significant landslides on roads and highways during the rainy season (November to February), by which traffic gets interrupted. This usually is resolved within 6 hours to 4 days. There are many toll crossings; the fee is about US$3.00. There are also plenty of dirt roads of variable quality. International land travel is only possible to Ecuador and Venezuela.

By Bus

Travel by bus is widespread and has different levels of quality. Long-distance trips rarely cost over US$55.00 (one way). When acquiring tickets for the bus, the local custom is that the passanger comes to the terminal and buys the next available bus going to the desired destination. Depending on the company or terminal, it may be even not possible to purchase a ticket 1 or several days in advance! Therefore, is recommendable to know at least when a particular service starts and ends in a day.

Some companies that offers routes to the north:


Other companies that goes to the south part of the country:


By urban Bus

Around the turn of this century urban centers in Colombia saw the development of highly efficient and neat bus transit systems that are spreading to other countries. In Bogotá you can find the Transmilenio, in Cali el Mio and in Pereira the Megabús. It is still recommended that you keep an eye on your belongings and that you do not carry valuables, excess cash (more than $20,000 COP visible) or unnecessary items. Never accept food or drinks from strangers. Avoid talking to strangers at bus stops or terminals. It is possible you may be stopped at police check points. A calm attitude is the best key to avoid inconveniences.

By metro

The only metro system of Colombia is in Medellín, in the Antioquia department. It connects the towns that make up what is known as "Medellin" - Line A departs from Itagüí to Niquía, Line B from San Antonio to San Javíer. The metro system also has two cable car lines : Metrocable Line K from Acevedo to Santo Domingo Savio and Metrocable Line J departing from San Javier. Riding the cable cars is a unique experience, as passengers travel up the mountains in gondolas. The MetroCable has six stations and an extension to the new Arví ecopark is under construction. There is police presence in each metro station, they are very courteous towards tourists.

By taxi

The taxi networks in big cities such as in Bogota are extensive and very cheap. A (bright yellow) taxi journey across Bogota, can take up to a day but cost less than US$15.If you order a taxi by phone the company will then give you the taxi registration number. Then the taxi will be waiting at the given address. You may need to give them a three or four digit code given to you when you book the taxi. During the day some taxi ranks outside hotels, office buildings and government offices will only allow certified drivers and companies and will also take your name and details when you board the taxi. Taxis from city to city are easy to arrange by phoning ahead and agreeing the price, it will still be cheap by western standards and is safe and quite agreeable. The meter in all taxis starts at 25, and then increases over distance. The number it arrives at corresponds to a tariff that will be on display on the front seat of the cab. Note that taxi and bus prices increase on sundays, public holidays, early in the morning and late at night. For taxis there are also extra charges for baggage and for booking in advance by telephone. Unlike many other countries it is not customary to tip the taxi driver. It's up to the individual. Many taxis are not allowed to travel outside of Bogota due to boundary restrictions with their licences. You should always make arrangements to travel outside of Bogota by taxi ahead of time. In some locations (Las Aguas in the Candelaria district of Bogota for example) you may find an individual acting as a tout for taxi drivers - they will offer you a taxi and lead you to a particular cab. They then recevie a small tip from the driver. Taxis (and much else besides) are much more expensive in Cartagena than in other cities.

By cable car

Since most of the Colombian population lives in the Andes, cable car systems are becoming popular for both commuting and tourist transportation. You can ride the ones in Medellín, which are intergrated in the Metro system , as well as the ones in rural small towns of Antioquia : Jardín, Jericó, Sopetrán and San Andrés de Cuerquia. Also enjoy the magnificent view of the new cable car above the Chicamocha river canyon in Santander.


In many areas of Colombia, it is common to have buñuelos in christmas time (deep fried corn flour balls with cheese in the dough) and arepas (rather thick corn tortillas, often made with cheese and served with butter) with scrambled eggs for breakfast. Bogotá and the central region have its own breakfast delicacy of tamales - maize and chopped pork or chicken with vegetables and eggs, steamed in banana leaves, often served with home-made hot chocolate.

Empanadas, made with potato and meat with a pouch-like yellow exterior, are delicious and entirely different from their Mexican counterparts. Pastry is prevalent, both salty and sweet, including Pandebono, Pan de Yuca, Pastel Gloria, and Roscon. These vary in quality--ask the locals for the best niche places to indulge.

For lunch, especially on Sundays, you should try a sancocho de gallina (rich chicken soup, served with part of the chicken itself, rice and vegetables/salad). Sancocho is widespread throughout the country, with countless regional variants. On the coast it features fish, and is highly recommended. Another soup, served in Bogotá and the periphery, is Ajiaco (chicken soup made with three different kinds of potato, vegetables and herbs(guasca), served with rice, avocado, corn, milk cream and capers).

"Bandeja paisa" is common in most places, (the "paisas" are the natives from some departments in the North West, such as Antioquia, Caldas, Risaralda and Quindío). This includes rice, beans, fried plantain, arepa, fried egg, chorizo, chicharrón (pork crackling) with the meat still attached. It's a very fatty dish, but you can leave what you don't like, and if you're lucky enough, you could find a gourmet bandeja paisa in a good restaurant in Bogotá or Medellín. They are lighter and smaller.

There are a few chains throughout the country. In addition to worldwide franchises (McDonald's, Subway, T.G.I.F., which are specially focused on Bogotá and other big cities), Colombian chains are very strong and located in almost every city. Presto and especially El Corral serve outstanding burgers, Kokoriko makes broiled chicken and Frisby specializes in roasted chicken. Crêpes and Waffles, as the name indicates, is an upscale breakfast/brunch restaurant with spectacular... crêpes, waffles and ice cream. There are many international restaurants, including rodizios (Brazilian steak house style), paella houses, etc.

A great variety of tropical fruits can be tasted, and the corresponding variety in juices, from some of the oddest ones you can find around the globe (really) to the sweetest ones. You just must know how to find and prepare them. Anyway, anyone would be pleased to teach you. Some examples of those exotic fruits include: tamarinds, mangoes, guanabanas, lulo, mangostines (really great and rare even for Colombians), and a great variety in citrus. In addition, you can find some of those rich and strange flavors in prepared food like ice cream brands or restaurant juices. Most of Colombians drink juices at home and in restaurants, they are inexpensive and natural everywhere.

In Colombia there are a great variety of "tamales" if you like them, but be aware they are very different from their most famous Mexican cousins. They differ from region to region, but all of them are delicious. They are called "envuelto", the sweet tamale made of corn.

Regarding coffee, you can find a lot of products that are both made commercially and home-made from this very famous Colombian product, like wines, cookies, candies, milk-based desserts like "arequipe", ice-cream, etc.

Colombians are famous for having a sweet tooth, so you are going to find a lot of desserts and local candies like "bocadillo" made of guayaba (guava fruit), or the most famous milk-based "arequipe" (similar to its Argentinian cousin "dulce leche" or the french "confiteure du lait"). That just covers the basics, since every region in Colombia has its own fruits, local products, and therefore its own range of sweet products. If you are a lover of rare candies, you could get artisan-made candies in the little towns near Bogotá and Tunja.

The "tres leches" cake is not to be missed - a sponge cake soaked in milk, covered in whipped cream, then served with condensed milk, it is for the serious dairy fiend only. Another delicious dessert is is 'leche asada', like a grilled milk.

Organic food is a current trend in big cities, but in little towns you can get fruits and veggies all very natural and fresh. Colombians aren't used to storing food for the winter, since there are no seasons in the traditional sense. So don't ask them for dried items like dried tomatos or fruits. All you have to do is go shopping at the little grocery stores nearby and pick up the freshest of the harvest of the month (almost everything is available and fresh all year). As for pickles and related preserved food, you can find them in supermarkets, but they are not common in family households.

Pre-Colombian civilizations cultivated about 200 varieties of potatoes. Colombia as an Andean country, is not the exception. Even McDonalds recognizes the quality of this product and buys them. Try the local preparations like "papas saladas" (salted potatoes) or "papas chorriadas" (stewed potatoes).

All in all, in Colombia it can be fun to have the ingredients and the preparation of a lot of exotic recipes explained to you.


For breakfast, take a home-made hot drink. The choices normally include coffee, hot chocolate or "agua de panela". The former is a drink prepared with panela (dried cane juice), sometimes with cinnamon and cloves, which gives it a special taste. In Bogotá and the region around, is a custom to use cheese along with the drink, in a way that small pieces of cheese are put into the cup and then after they are melt, you can use a spoon to pick them up and eat it like a soup. It is the same way to drink hot chocolate.

Colombia's national alcoholic beverage, Aguardiente tastes strongly of anise, and is typically bought by the bottle or half bottle or a quarter. People usually drink it in shots. Each region has its own aguardiente, "Antioqueño" (from Antioquia), "Cristal" (from Caldas), "Quindiano" (from Quindío), "Blanco del Valle" (from Valle del Cauca) and "Nectar" (from Cundinamarca). There is also a variety of rum beverages, like "Ron Medellin Añejo" (also from Antioquia) and "Ron Viejo de Caldas" (also from Caldas).

The water is drinkable right from the tap in most of the major cities, but be prepared to buy some bottles if you go to the countryside. Agua Manantial Bottled water is recommended, it comes from a natural spring near Bogotá. An advice make sure you do not use ice cubes, or drink any beverage that might contain non distilled water, ask if the beverage is made with tap or bottled/boiled water.

If you are lucky enough, and if you are staying in a familiar "finca cafetera" (coffee plantation) you can ask your Colombian friends not only for the selected coffee (quality export) but for the remaining coffee that the farmers leave to their own use. This is manually picked, washed, toasted in rustic brick stoves and manually ground. It has the most exquisite and rare flavor and aroma ever found.

In Bogota at least, black filter coffee is refferred to as "tinto" - confusing if you were expecting red wine.

Also, you can find specialized places where you can drink coffee with many different combinations (like Juan Valdés stores), hot or frozen preparations.

Commercially you can find a lot of products made out of coffee too like wines, ice-creams, soda-pops and other beverages.


In Colombia you can find a range of options, bed and breakfast conditioned to western standards and hostels to five-star hotels. There are also apartments that rent per day. I understand this is mostly done in the coast and the north but they are generally much cheaper than hotels and my experience was very good.

  • Hilton Cartagena , 57-5-6650660, Avenida Almirante Brion, El Laguito, Centro

  • HostelTrail - South America Hostel Network (Colombia Hostel Guide) , Based in Southern Colombia, this UK project offers free information about accommodation and tourism in Colombia - with up-to-date information on security and transportation between cities and towns.

  • Affordable luxury accommodation in Bogotá- Furnished apartments with hotel services 24/7 Security .


The Colombian textile industry is well-recognized and reputable around South America and Europe. Clothing, including lingerie is particularly well-regarded as high quality and very affordable. Leather garments, shoes and accessories are also of interest to foreigners. The best place to buy either is Medellin, known for being the fashion capital of the country, where one can buy very high quality goods at a very low cost.

Colombian emeralds and gold (18k) jewelry can also be very attractive for visitors. A typical Colombian style of jewelry is a copy of precolombian jewelry, which is fabricated with gold, silver and semi-precious stones.

The "mochila", the Spanish word for "backpack" or "rucksack", is also a traditional, indigenous, hand-woven Colombian bag, normally worn over the shoulder. They are commonly sold in shopping malls, especially in the Santa Marta/El Rodadero area. Mochilas usually come in three sizes - a large one to carry bigger things, a medium one to carry personal belongings, and a small one to carry coca leaves. Coca leaves are carried by locals to reduce hunger, increase energy and to combat altitude sickness.

Handicrafts such as intricately designed jewelery are commonly sold in markets and on street corners. Many street vendors will approach people, selling t-shirts, shorts, glasses, bracelets, watches, necklaces, souvenirs, and novelty photographs. If you want to buy something, this is a good time to exercise your bartering skills. Usually you can go down by 2,000 to 3,000 pesos, however 2,000 is the generally accepted rule. For example, if someone is selling a shirt for P$10,000, try asking if you can pay P$8,000. Go from there.

If you don't want to buy anything, a simple gracias, ("thank you") and a non-committal wave of your hand will deter would-be sellers.


Languages: Spanish

If you've recently learned Spanish, its a relief to know that the Colombian variety is clear and easy to understand. The Spanish does vary, however, from Cartagena to Bogota to Cali. Generally the Spanish on the coasts is spoken more rapidly, and Spanish from Medellin has its own idiosyncrasies. Note that in cities like Medellín and Cali, the dialect of Spanish is the voseo form. Meaning that instead of the second person familiar pronoun , vos is used instead. Though is also understood by everybody, vos is a more friendly voice while is reserved for intimate circles.

English is taught in school, and Colombians are often exposed to subtitled Hollywood films, so while shy many Colombians know at least a few basic phrases in English. Expect to meet teenage Colombians who may want to practice their English skills with you.

Colombians from more affluent backgrounds will have lived and worked in the U.S., Canada, England and possibly Australia in order to learn English. Many university text books are in English, and the majority of high ranking professionals, executives and government workers in Colombia speak an acceptable level of English.

French, German and Portuguese are also spoken, but to a lesser extent.

Stay healthy

Drink only bottled water outside the major cities. The water in major cities is safe. Anywhere else, never get drinks with ice cubes in them, and always make sure that the water you are served in restaurants comes from a bottle (they should open it in front of you). Doing anything else may result in health problems.

If you're staying with relatives or friends especially you could ask for boiled water since families are used to having it around.

In cities like Bogotá, Pereira, Manizales or Medellin, the quality of the water is optimum. On the other hand, Cali, Santa Marta, and other low-land cities lack this quality. In Pereira or Manizales for example, the water, besides being processed, comes from pristine natural sources near a nevado. In Bogotá, the water comes from the high mountains, 3,330 meters above sea level.

In the coastal cities you had better watch what you drink in streets or beaches.


Colombia has suffered from a terrible reputation as a dangerous and violent country but it has been reduced a lot. In the last five years safety has improved significantly and Colombia no longer has the highest rate of kidnappings in the world. Tourists will face problems if they decide just to fool around in some neighborhoods of the main cities. Of course it pays to think safe, just as you would in any other large metropolitan city. To discover the forest, ask somebody to stay with you. Walk relatively free during the day, but during night take precautions and from time to time observe who's around you.


There was an agreement in 2005 with the government which resulted in the disarmament of most of the paramilitaries, however the FARC and ELN guerrillas are still operational. These guerrillas, however, operate mainly in the rural areas and jungles which are mainly uninhabited. As long as you stay in the metropolitan areas or nearby, you should be safe. River police, highway police, newspapers, and fellow travelers can be a useful source of information. (Note that the native pronunciation of guerrilla is "gair-EE-ya", not the English expression "guh-RILL-a".)


The crime rate in Colombia has been significantly reduced since its peak in the late 80's and 90's, however, major cities in Colombia have relative high crime rates in certain regions of the city. If you just take some usual precautions you should be fine. In the downtown areas of most cities it is not rare to encounter problems and it is very important to exercise extreme caution in the less developed parts of the urban regions. If you want to take a taxi, ask for it using a phone service-- it costs the same and your call will be answered rapidly. If you want to travel around the country you should research the areas you intend to visit and try to not go alone, since some distant parts outside the cities are not recommended for tourists or even locals. If possible speak to a trusted local.


Cocaine manufactured in Colombia was historically mostly consumed in the US. With US consumption on the decline more and more of it is going to Western Europe instead. Local consumption is low. However, it can be seen in certain areas.

Widespread drugs and cartels have created a negative image of the country. Although the police and armed forces fight to combat them, corruption and bribery have always won as high ranking officers are presumed to have 'agreements' with the drug dealers. The Colombian government has a strong commitment to fight drug production and trade. Current President Alvaro Uribe, with significant aid from the US government, has led, in the last 4 years, a policy of massively destroying drug plantations using chemical defoliants, but this has helped just a little against the organized drug dealership.

Be sensitive. Colombians are a proud people, and are proud of the progress they've made. Do not make jokes about the drug trade in Colombia, as it has ruined many innocent citizens' lives.

Given Colombia's increasing aggression toward combating the drug trade, drug offenses are not treated lightly. If you are caught by the authorities possessing a controlled substance, expect serious problems.

Marijuana is illegal. Police will tolerate you having a few grams of this drug on your person, but you are flirting with danger if you carry much more. The real danger is consuming drugs as a foreigner in Colombia. If you are caught smoking marijuana on the street in most towns in Colombia, you will be in serious trouble. It is not always the police you have to deal with, but a vigilante. Often the vigilantes keep the peace in towns and they have a very severe way of dealing with problems. The safest way to deal with them is having cash on you; it can help you get out of many situations, as you do not want to go to jail there.


Colombian Spanish is considered by many around the world as the purest in Latin America and there are many universities and language schools that have Spanish programs.

Colombia education is generally strict and is kept to high standards. Most Colombian degrees can be legalized in foreign countries. You can find several programs in different universities around the country. You can also find programs with language institutes that could offer a variety of courses.


If you want to work for a national company, such as Bancolombia/Conavi, Avianca, or Presto, you must be able to speak Spanish with near-native fluency. Depending on your qualifications, companies may offer Spanish lessons, however always make sure that you are indeed eligible for the position advertised. You can teach English for extra money, especially in smaller cities where the demand for it is high. Also you could work for a NGO.

Generally avoid discussing politics or the present armed conflict in public, except with well-known acquaintances or relatives that have your trust and confidence. In general, nobody will react with violence to different opinions, but the hearts of Colombians suffer deeply remembering all the victims of the political and narcotics wars of past and current conflicts.

Accordingly, do not approach the subjects of drug wars or political turmoil in your first conversation with a Colombian; this can really grate on their nerves, since they are clearly aware of their country's bad reputation and the government has been persistently working to improve the country's condition. When approached with these topics, it is not uncommon for them to utter a snide remark (likely regarding your country of origin) and walk away. However, Colombians eventually become willing to discuss these topics once they feel comfortable enough with someone.

Always say "please" ("Por favor" or "Hágame el favor") and "thank you" ("muchas gracias") for anything, to anyone. Colombians tend to be very polite and formal, and explicitly good manners win the approval of those around you. Sometimes it can sound rude to Colombians if somebody calls you and you answer with just an "Ehhh?"--the proper response being "¿Señora?" or "¿Señor?", depending on who's calling you.

Despite being a formal people, Colombians tend to speak their minds and opinions quite freely. However, asking Colombians questions about certain topics (i.e. questions that may be seen as judgmental of religion, class, or economic status) may be considered a private or only-for-close-friends matter.

Like many other Americans, Colombians dislike arguing. So if you get involved in an argument with a Colombian person, it is likely that most Colombians will try to diffuse the situation and avoid prolonging the discussion, so while discussing certain issues, keep yourself cool and express yourself with calm and reason. Colombians admire people with such nature.

Most Colombians are laid back regarding race issues, since white or creole persons blend naturally with natives and Afro-Colombians in everyday life (education, living, politics, marriage). So the word "negro" can be used regardless of who's saying it, or who is being referred to in this way. You can hear expressions like "negrito" or "mi negro" in a restaurant or on the street. You could hear someone calling "negra" to a woman, regardless of the race of the person. And in general, Afro-Colombians don't find it offensive, as they are simply variations on the Spanish word for "black". When you use the word "negro"(pronounced "NEH-gro"), whether the intent of the speaker is to be racist or not is inferred from tone of voice and context, so be careful to avoid any confusion.

As in most areas in the world, differences between white British persons, white U.S citizens or northern Europeans are not perceived by most people. Hence, you can expect to be called "gringo" even if you are, say, Russian. Don't let this offend you as a tourist or visitor. Should you feel like it, just mention where you're from. Most people will remember your nationality.

It is also quite common for Colombians to refer to all caucasians as "monos" or "rubios" (blonds). Even white people with clearly red or brown hair may be called this. Just as with "negro" this is not offensive, just a way to reference someone.

The same statement could be issued regarding Asian visitors. Due to the fact that the most common and familiar Asian ethnicity in Colombia is Chinese, very often visitors from the Pacific Rim and the Far East such as Korea, Japan, Thailand, Malaysia, among others, are considered the same race, hence, the expression "Chino" for males and "China" for women (Chinese in either case) to all people coming from an Asian ethnicity. If this is your case, trying to point out your ethnic and cultural background will be difficult, so passing by this perception could avoid uncomfortable situations and instead will allow you get in touch with the warmth and friendliness of Colombians. Something peculiar is that Colombians refer to children as chinos ("kids") this use comes from Chibcha (the language spoken by indigenous Colombians) and is not a reference to the people of the Asian country.

Colombians have the mannerism of pointing to objects with their mouths. This is because pointing to a person or even an object with your finger can be considered rude.

Avoid indicating a person's height using your hand palm down, as this is considered reserved for animals or inanimate objects. If you must, use your palm facing sidewards with the bottom of the hand expressing the height.

Regarding table manners, a lot of the more traditional elder Colombians hate when the guest leaves some of the food uneaten on the plate. This sometimes can be uncomfortable to visitors due to the "exotic" food that can be served, like tamales (wrapped in wet green palm leaves). However, you can explain your fears regarding certain foods--they'll understand. When you are eating with young people, you can negotiate and even ask what is going to be eaten in the first place, as Colombians are generally very accommodating to foreigners.

Colombians like to dance a lot. It's part of their cultural ancestry. As in other Central and South American countries, it's very common to hear and feel rhythmic music such as salsa, son, merengue, cumbia or reggaeton. Anyone will be glad to teach you how to dance, and they will not expect you to do it correctly, since they have been practicing every weekend for most of their lives. Colombian night life centers mostly on dancing, and bars where people sit or stand are less common among young people.

In Bogota, Andres Carne de Res is an especially famous restaurant, as is El Salto del Angel. Also in you can find great places like the "fondas", they´re places that resemble the old country houses in the Antioquia region. You can find many objects, pictures and other artifacts that are part of the coffee culture. They're great places to eat and dance, and you must visit them every time you come to Colombia.

When dancing, despite what you might think of all the sensual movements of men and women, people just enjoy music and dancing and are normally not intended as sexual encounters or as sexual signs. Here you could find salsa being danced at a children's "piñata" party, or even at parties for older people. North Americans and Europeans could find this odd or confusing because of the use of salsa and Latin rhythms in their countries. A Colombian dancing innocently could be misinterpreted, and in general, Colombian women or men are not "easy" just because of the way they dance. It is applied in the same way as in Brazil --an almost-naked "garota" dancing samba in the carnival is not inviting you to have sex with her but inviting you to enjoy, to be happy, to join in the celebration, to join the exuberant shedding of inhibitions.

Regarding religion, most Colombians are Catholic, and it´s important to them to keep certain ceremonies and respect for all things related to religion. You could visit great architectural churches, even going inside, but taking pictures may be considered disrespectful during a mass celebration. Young people are more open to learning about other religions and debate on this subject.

Colombians are very conservative about homosexual issues, so it's not common to find a couple of men holding hands or kissing in the street. Young people are comparatively more open-minded, but don't expect too much radical liberalism on their part, either. As a general rule, socially "liberal" Colombians are roughly the equivalent of a socially "conservative" Western European, so you can expect older Colombians to have quite stringent values.

When writing the name of the country do not spell it "Columbia". Everyone will spot the misspelling right away, and though not necessarily offensive, Colombians are aware of this common mistake and find it rather annoying. The Spanish (and English for that matter) name of the country is "Colombia".

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Spanish - Colombian peso (COP)
Area1,138,910 km2
GovernmentRepublic; executive branch dominates government
Population43,593,035 (July 2006 est.)
ReligionRoman Catholic 90%
TimezoneUTC -5